System s Operations Management

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De Montfort University Leicester
System s Operations Management
School of Engineering and Sustainable
Development
Professor Abdel Moneim Ahmed
Introduction to SERVQUAL
The Customer Gap
2
Provider Gap 1: Not knowing what customers expect
Provider Gap 2: Not selecting the right service designs and standards
Provider Gap 3: Not delivering to service standards
Provider Gap 4: Not matching performance to promises
Customer
Expectations
Customer
Perceptions
Key Factors Leading to the
Customer Gap
Customer
Gap
3
Gaps Model of Service Quality
Customer Gap: difference between customer expectations and
perceptions
Provider Gap 1 (Listening Gap):
not knowing what customers expect
Provider Gap 2 (Service Design #038; Standards Gap):
not having the right service designs and standards
Provider Gap 3 (Service Performance Gap):
not delivering to service standards
Provider Gap 4 (Communication Gap):
not matching performance to promises
4

Company
perceptions
of customer
expectations
Perceived
Service
COMPANY
Gap 1:
The Listening
Gap

expectations

Customer

CUSTOMER
Provider Gap 1
5
Key Factors Leading to Provider Gap 1
6
CUSTOMER

COMPANY Customer-driven
service designs and
standards
Company

Gap 2: The Service
Design and Standards
Gap
perceptions of
customer
expectations
Provider Gap 2
7
Key Factors Leading to Provider Gap 2
8
CUSTOMER

COMPANY
Service delivery
Service
Gap
Customer-driven
service designs and
standards

Gap 3: The
Performance
Provider Gap 3
9
Key Factors Leading to Provider Gap 3
10

CUSTOMER
COMPAN Gap 4: The Communication Gap
Y Service delivery
External
communications to
customers

Provider Gap 4
11
Key Factors Leading to Provider Gap 4
12
Gaps Model of Service Quality
13
Six Service Quality Gaps
Suggestions for Closing the Six
Service Quality Gaps

Suggestions for Closing the Six
Service Quality Gaps

Suggestions for Closing the Six
Service Quality Gaps

Suggestions for Closing the Six
Service Quality Gaps

Ways to Use Gap Analysis
Overall Strategic Assessment:
How are we doing overall in meeting or
exceeding customer expectations?
How are we doing overall in closing the four
company gaps?
Which gaps represent our strengths and
where are our weaknesses?
19
Ways to Use Gap Analysis
Specific Service Implementation
Who is the customer? What is the service?
Are we consistently meeting/exceeding
customer expectations with this service?
If not, where are the gaps and what changes
are needed? (Examine gaps 1-4 for this
particular service.)
20
Measuring Service Quality
Reliability: Consistency of performance and
dependability
Responsiveness: The willingness or readiness of
employees to provide service.
Assurance: The knowledge, competence and
courtesy of service employees and their ability to
convey trust and confidence
Empathy: The caring and individual attention
provided to customers
Tangibles: Physical evidence of the service
21
SERVQUAL
What is SERVQUAL?
SERVQUAL is a survey instrument, developed
by PZB, and for assessing quality along the five
service dimensions.
The SERVQUAL survey has been used by many
firms and is an off-the-shelf approach that can be
used in many service settings.
22
The SERVQUAL instrument, a survey, has many advantages.
Among these are:
— It is accepted as a
standard for assessing different dimensions of
services quality.
— It has been shown to be
valid for a number of service situations.
— It has been demonstrated to be
reliable, meaning that different
readers interpret the questions similarly.
— The instrument is
parsimonious in that it has only 22 items. This
means that it can be filled out quickly by customers and
employees.
— Finally, it has a
standardized analysis procedure to aid
interpretation and results.
23
SERVQUAL…cont.
Although the SERVQUAL survey is not as
widely used as a standardized approach to
gathering information about customer
perceptions of service quality.
As such, it provides a base, or a means, to get
started in assessing customer perceptions of
quality.
24
SERVQUAL…cont.
The SERVQUAL survey has two parts – customer
expectations
and customer perceptions.
Let’s say you desire to improve service quality
along some dimensions.
The natural question is, “ Which will create the
greater improvement to the system for improving
service?”
If you understand both customer expectations and
perceptions, we can assess the
gap in these areas.
25
SERVQUAL…cont.
This type of analysis provides a good way to
understand how best to improve customer
satisfaction.
The following table shows the 22 survey items for
expectations.
The wording of the statements in the expectations
survey
relates to a generic firm in an industry that
interests you.
Table 8.2 shows the items that address specific
service quality dimensions.
26
SERVQUAL…cont.
SERVQUAL
Figure 8.2 SERVQUAL Expectations Survey
SERVQUAL Items and Dimensions
Tangibles 1-4
Reliability 5-9
Responsiveness 10-13
Assurance 14-17
Empathy 18-22
28
SERVQUAL…cont.
Dimension Items
The SERVQUAL perceptions survey shown in
the following table is administered to
customers in the same way that the
expectations survey was administered.
Notice that the perceptions survey also
contains 22 items that are matched with the
same five quality dimensions as the
expectations survey.
29
SERVQUAL…cont.
SERVQUAL
Figure 8.3 SERVQUAL Perceptions Survey
Gap Analysis
The SERVQUAL instrument is used to
perform
gap analysis. Because services are
often intangible, gaps in communication and
understanding between employees and
customers have a serious negative affect on
the perceptions of services quality.
The model in the following figure shows the
gaps that commonly occur that can affect the
perceptions of services quality.
31
SERVQUAL…cont.
SERVQUAL Model
Personal Needs
Service Quality
Specifications

Management Perceptions of
Customer Expectations
ap 2

Expected Service

Past Experience

 

External
Communications
to Customers
Gap 4
Perceived Service
Customer
Gap 5
Gap 1
Gap 3

Service Delivery
Word-of-Mouth
Communications
Provider
32
Gaps in Service Quality

Gap Problem Cause(s)
1. Consumer
expectation – mgmt.
perception
The service features offered
don’t meet customer needs
Lack of marketing research; inadequate upward
communication; too many levels between
contact personnel and management
2. Management
perception – service
quality specification
The service specifications
defined do not meet
management’s perceptions of
customer expectations
Resource constraints; management
indifference; poor service design
3. Service quality
specification –
service delivery
Specifications for service meet
customer needs but service
delivery is not consistent with
those specifications
Employee performance is not standardized;
customer perceptions are not uniform
4. Service delivery –
external
communication
The service does not meet
customer expectations, which
have been influenced by
external communication
Marketing message is not consistent with actual
service offering; promising more than can be
delivered
5. Expected service
– perceived service
Customer judgments of
high/low quality based on
expectations vs. actual service
A function of the magnitude and direction of the
gap between expected service and perceived
service

33

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