PUBH 140 City University of Seattle Public Health Questions

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OUBH140V Spring 2020 Class Exam #3 Answer Sheet: Name: ____________________________ Date:_____________ Honor Pledge signature: ________________________________________ 1) _________ 16) _________ 31) _________ 2) _________ 17) _________ 32) _________ 3) _________ 18) _________ 33) _________ 4) _________ 19) _________ 34) _________ 5) _________ 20) _________ 35) _________ 6) _________ 21) _________ 36) _________ 7) _________ 22) _________ 37) _________ 8) _________ 23) _________ 38) _________ 9) _________ 24) _________ 39) _________ 10) _________ 25) _________ 40) _________ 11) _________ 26) _________ 41) _________ 12) _________ 27) _________ 42) _________ 13) _________ 28) _________ 43) _________ 14) _________ 29) _________ 15) _________ 30) _________ OUBH140V Spring 2020 Answer Sheet: 44) a. b. c. 45) Local: State National 46) Class Exam #3 PUBH 140V Spring 2020 Final Exam This test is designed as a take home Exam. This IS NOT an open book Exam, but should be completed once you have studied the materials, an should reflect knowledge gained. The test should be completed in 120minutes (If you have an accommodations for additional test time, you may of course add time to your exam.) No notes or supplemental information can be used on the test in any format. All Phones, computers, smart watches or any other form of written or audio materials must be put away during the test. Multiple Choice: Select the best answer for each question below. 1) The _________________, includes among the fundamental purposes of government, “to promote the general welfare.” a. b. c. d. Bill of Rights Articles of the Republic Public Health Service Act of 1924 Preamble to the Constitution 2) What type of prevention seeks to minimize the severity of the illness or the damage due to an injury-causing event once the event has occurred? a. Primary prevention b. Secondary prevention c. Tertiary prevention d. Quaternary prevention 3) Public health often arouses controversy on moral grounds, most often when it confronts what type of issues? a. Economic issues b. Legislative issues c. Sexual and reproductive issues d. D) Drug and alcohol issues 4) As part of the ___________________ function, public health seeks to understand the medical care system in an area of study generally referred to as health policy and management or health administration, which also includes the administration and functioning of the public health system. a. b. c. d. Research Assurance Assessment Policy PUBH 140V Spring 2020 Final Exam 5) Health Promotion is the process of enabling people to increase control over/improve, their health which focuses and social and environmental interventions. a. True b. False 6) Epidemiology is used to perform what function of public health? a. Assurance b. Policy development c. Assessment d. Analysis 7) When calculating the rate of a disease, which of the following is generally the denominator of the calculation? a. Population with the disease b. Population at risk c. Total state population d. Total world population 8) Which term refers to “systematic error in the design or the conduct of a study that leads to a false association between exposure and disease.” a. b. c. d. Disease rate Endemic Risk Factor Bias 9) What are the 3 types of error in epidemiologic studies? a. Risk Factor, Bias, Cases b. Confounding, Risk Factor, Fatal Error c. Bias, Confounding, Random Error d. Controls, Reasonable Error, Random Rates 10)Which is NOT a purpose of immunization? a. To confer immunity on a previously susceptible host. b. Stimulate the body’s immune system to recognize and attack the pathogen during a future exposure c. Reduce the number of susceptible individuals in a population to reduce transmission. PUBH 140V Spring 2020 Final Exam 11)When evaluating the results of an epidemiologic Study, it is important to consider if a positive association of a Risk Factor to the studied health outcome would support a causal relationship. Which of the following is NOT a consideration in this evaluation? a. b. c. d. e. An observed dose-response relationship Statistical significance (e.g. p-value) The strength of association Studied population Consistency of the observed response across studies 12)What is the primary purpose of Koch’s Postulates? a. b. c. d. e. Criteria to distinguish between bacteria and viruses under a microscope. A method to identify the specific vector for a bacterial pathogen. A step-by-step method to develop a vaccine. To prove that a specific organism caused a specific disease. A set of rules to describe a habitat where an infectious agent normally grows and multiplies. 13)Identify infected individuals Most Chronic disease and some infectious disease are caused primarily by individual behaviors. An analysis of the leading “actual” causes of death in the US found that almost half of all deaths are caused by behavior under individual control. a. True b. False 14)Which of the following is not an element in the Chain of infection? a. b. c. d. e. Pathogen Quarantine Route of entry Mode of Transmission Reservoir 15)Across the course we have studied both infectious disease and chronic degenerative diseases. Which class of diseases are considered the leading cause of death in the U.S. today? c. Infectious disease d. Chronic disease PUBH 140V Spring 2020 Final Exam 16)Antibiotic resistance is one of the factors leading to reemerging infectious disease such as Tuberculosis. Which statement below best describes antibiotic resistance? a. An agent which can attenuate the course of a viral infection but is ineffective against bacterial infections. b. The result of an evolutionary process by which bacteria lose sensitivity to antibiotics as a result of their improper use. c. A treatment option for tuberculosis that was instituted for patients who were judged unlikely to take their medications regularly d. Livestock which are bread to be naturally resistant to microbial threats. e. Control of an infectious disease by interrupting the chain of infection through treatment of the intermediate host with antibiotics. 17)Which of the following is considered one of the leading causes of Infant Mortality in the US? a. HIV transmission to infants b. Poor nutrition c. Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS) d. Down Syndrome 18) Why is the health of infants and children of special concern for public health? a. Fetal and infant stages of development provide the foundations of good health through life b. Children are resilient to environmental challenges c. Measures of children’s health – such as the Infant Mortal Rate (IMR) are not of concern for the health status of a population d. Health effects in childhood are unlikely to effect health later in life. 19) Which psychological model of health behavior has a process which progresses through five stages: Precontemplation, Contemplation, Preparation, Action and Maintenance? a. b. c. d. e. Health Belief Model Self-efficacy Model Social Support and Progress model Transtheoretical Model Ecological Model PUBH 140V Spring 2020 Final Exam 20)Which of the following is a pattern described as a “numbed acceptance of a negative situation so that an individual no longer tries to change that situation for the better because he or she does not expect those efforts to make any difference”? a. Passive aggression b. Learned helplessness c. Perceived failure d. Behavioral regression 21)An epidemic occurs when: a. There is the usual and expected rate of a disease in a population which is being studied by an Epidemiologist. b. When diseases often have multiple risk factors and can include acute or chronic infections. c. There is an increase in the rate of a disease above the usual and expected rate in a population d. When chronic disease is a function of an individual’s health status, so that public health officials do not have a role in prevention, treatment and cure of chronic disease 22)Endemic disease rates by definition are… a. Indicative of an epidemic b. Less than epidemic disease rates c. ONLY occur when there is an epidemic d. Greater than epidemic disease rates 23) A pandemic is…. a. When the endemic and epidemic disease rates are similar b. When one disease crosses political borders. c. When public health officials should disease surveillance d. When an epidemic spreads worldwide. 24) Which is NOT a key practice area of Environmental Health? a. Food Safety b. Occupational Health c. Water Supply / Sanitation d. Women Infant Children (WIC) Nutrition e. Hazardous Chemicals in the environment (Air, Water, Soil) 25) Which of the following are potential hazards addressed by Environmental Health? a. Chemical Agents, food borne toxins, nutritional requirements b. Radiation, genetic mutations, hazardous noise c. Infectious disease, immunizations, potable water d. Chemical Agents, Infectious disease, Radiation PUBH 140V Spring 2020 Final Exam Matching: For group of terms and definitions, match each term to the best description/definition. Please note there may be more terms than definitions provided within a grouping. Match Group A: a. b. c. d. e. Reservoir Vector Susceptible Host Zoonotic Intermediate Host 26)_______Hosts that do not have immunity to the pathogen. 27) _______An insect rodent or other being which serves to transmit a pathogen from an infected individual to a susceptible individual. 28)_______A place where a pathogen lives and multiplies. This may be within a living organism or an environmental media (e.g. soil, water). 29)_______A living organism where a parasite must reside during part of it’s life-cycle, before reentering and infecting a susceptible host. Match Group B: a. b. c. d. e. Prevalence Control group Relative risk Population at risk Incidence 30)_______the total of individuals who are potentially susceptible to the disease being studied. 31)_______the total number of cases of a disease existing in a defined population at a specific time. 32)_______a measure of the strength of association between exposure and disease used in intervention studies and cohort studies; a ratio of incidence rate for exposed persons to incidence rate of unexposed persons. 33)_______the rate of new cases of a disease in a defined population over a defined period of time. PUBH 140V Spring 2020 Final Exam The National Academies of Science (NAS), Institute of Medicine (IOM) published a report The Future of Public Health (IOM, 1988) to refocus attention on the importance of Public Health to the Nation. The report outlines 3 Core Functions of public health, and the ten essential public health services within these functions. Please match each core function to the best definition. A. Assurance B. Policy development C. Assessment 34)__________ The diagnostic function in which an agency collects, assembles, analyzes, and makes available information on the health of a population. 35)__________ The process by which a public health agency ensures that the services needed for the protection of the community’s health are available and accessible to everyone. 36)__________ The use of scientific knowledge to develop a strategic approach to improving the community’s health. This function often involves elected officials, community advocates and those within Federal, State and local agencies. 37) What is the one essential service which is considered to serve all of the core functions? PUBH 140V Spring 2020 Final Exam Match each Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS) Agency to the best description below. (10 points) A. B. C. D. E. F. National Institutes of Health (NIH) Food and Drug Administration (FDA) Occupational Safety and Health Administration Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) U.S. Environmental Protection Agency National Institutes for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) 38)__________: It’s mission is to ensure that: all Americans are protected from significant risks to human health and the environment where they live, learn and work. 39)__________ ensures safe and healthful working conditions for working men and women by setting and enforcing standards and by providing training, outreach, education and assistance. 40)The mission of ________ is to generate new knowledge in the field of occupational safety and health and to transfer that knowledge into practice for the betterment of workers. 41)________, one of our Nation’s oldest consumer protection agencies, ensures the safety of foods and cosmetics and the safety and efficacy of pharmaceuticals, biological products, and medical devices. 42)______. It’s mission is to promote health and quality of life by preventing and controlling disease, injury, and disability. This Agency is the main epidemiologic and assessment agency for the nation and publishes Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report (MMWR). It also has a major role in protecting the public from biological or chemical terrorism. 43)________, is the Nations medical research Agency. Agency scientists investigate ways to prevent disease, as well as the causes, treatments, and even cures for common and rare diseases. PUBH 140V Spring 2020 Final Exam 44) The attached CDC figure illustrates the transmission of Shistosomiasis (liver flukes): There is no vaccine for Shistosomiasis. There is a chemical treatment for an infected human. a. Please describe the portal of exit from the infected individual which is part of the transmission of the Shistosomiasis pathogen to a new host. Include the life-stage of the organism, how it exists the host and where it goes. b. What is the intermediate host for Shistosomiasis? How does it enter the new human host from the intermediate host? c. Based on the figure and your answers to questions 25 and 26; Recommend TWO public health strategies to Break the Chain of Infection for Shistosomiasis. Hint: Look at each step in the chain of infection, and see if you can break that link in the chain. PUBH 140V Spring 2020 Final Exam Shistosomiasis (liver flukes) PUBH 140V Spring 2020 Final Exam 45) Identify 3 public health organizations (local, state, and national) and describe 1 function of each: Local State National 46) Identify 3 determinants of health in the United States and explain how each could influence health:

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