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Bowie State Employees Input Importance in Effective Talent Management Paper
Bowie State Employees Input Importance in Effective Talent Management Paper
Chapter I: Introduction This study is about the importance of employee participation in talent management of multinationals and small businesses. Talent management focuses on the organization, monitoring and controlling of skills and talent within a business entity for rapid growth and expansion. Although considered expensive, talent management is important in the productivity and profitability of a business. A business that fails to manage talent is bound to fail. Planning and strategizing are essential elements of effective talent management. Employee involvement in talent management is one of the main strategies a business can use to achieve successful talent management. Therefore, the study focuses on establishing the significance of employee participation in ensuring effective talent management. Research has shown that engaging employees in talent management make an organization successful. Also, many CEOs focus on high productivity and creating an enabling environment to move the organization to higher levels of profitability. What does it take to achieve business success? The key is to focus on the knowledge and skills of the personnel. The productivity of an organization is the total of knowledge, skills, and experience of its employees. Employee engagement in talent management has proved to be beneficial in the following ways: increased performance (Payambarpour #038; Hooi, 2015) , enhanced acceptance of set goals, resulted in high retention of employees (Deepika #038; Surna, 2018). Increased performance is closely associated with the engagement of employees in talent supervision.When employees are engaged in planning and strategizing talent management, it results in increased performance. This is because the employees feel part of the process of moving the organization to the next level. But when the employees are left out in talent management, they feel disconnected from the company goals and aspirations, which results in low morale and motivation. Involvement of employees in talent management leads to acceptance of organizational goals, therefore, motivating them to work towards the success of the organization. The general direction of an organization is given by the highest governing body, for instance, the board of directors. However, those who determine whether or not the organization takes the direction given are the implementers, the employees. Therefore, it is important to engage the employees in every step of goal setting to achieve success. Lastly, studies have shown that the involvement of employees in talent development leads to high employee retention (Deepika #038; Surna, 2018). As already mentioned talent management is expensive, but it pays when employees work for a long period for an organization. When an organization loses skilled and highly resourceful labor force to the competition, the organization loses a competitive advantage and differential advantage. Statement of the Problem Many multinationals use traditional strategies in talent management without taking note of the developmental and perspective changes. One of these strategies is the use of boardroom meeting to decide what and what is not necessary talent management. This results in bridging skill-gap by employing more employees leading to a ballooned wage bill. Moreover, the employees can be pushed into taking careers path that are not in line with the aspirations and passion, resulting in low motivation at the workplace. This is because people like working longer in what they love doing and avoid working on what they do not like. Therefore, the researcher feels that the involvement of employees in talent management is the most effective strategy. Purpose of the study A study has shown that for effective talent management employees have to be involved especially in the planning stage (Violetta, Vlad, #038; Zalk, 2017). According to Violetta and others (2017) employees reciprocate positively when the organization invests in them. The researcher conquers with this and therefore thinks that effective talent management participation of employees is necessary. This is in opposition to traditional talent management where managers seat in a board meeting to project the skill-need of the organization. However, there has been a little study to establish that employee participation leads to effective talent management concretely. Therefore, the research has purposed to carry out a study to determine whether effective talent management is related to the involvement of employees. Research Questions The researcher seeks to establish that employee participation is essential in effective talent management. Therefore the researcher seeks to answer the following questions: Is employee involvement significant ineffective talent management? Should the employees participate from the beginning to the end in the process of talent management? Do employees open up in discussing their career paths and the skills they feel they need to be effective at their work? Need for the Study There is a need to study employee participation in talent management because there is already little research that has been carried in this area (Akram, Wayne, #038; Jaap, 2014). Moreover, the traditional methods used in talent management do not match with developmental changes an organization goes through. This calls for a change of gear. For instance, traditionally the top management of an organization is tasked with identification of positions and roles that are in line with the organizational values and objectives and work out to fill them with the best talent. However, the business dynamics that face every organization due to performance, technological, managerial and environmental changes, need arises for the adaptation of new strategies. One of these is the involvement of employees in effective internal talent and external recruitment. Theoretical Framework Employment involvement in increasing productivity and changing the company culture is a call of every CEO (Akram, Wayne, #038; Jaap, 2014). This has the support of three theoretical frameworks: theory X and Y, Two Factor theory and goal setting theory (Mildred, 2016). What is the Theory X and Y about employee participation and consequently talent management? Psychologist Douglas McGregor advanced theory X and Y in 1957 (Leanna, Kopelman, #038; Prottas, 2015). McGregor argued that employees’ performance is better under the management that espouses self-direction and self-motivation. Therefore, theory X and Y form one of the key theoretical pillars on which the study shall be carried out in establishing whether employee participation is key in effective talent management. Another theory on which this study shall be advanced is the two-factor theory. Herzberg introduced the two-factor theory of motivation based on satisfaction and dissatisfaction (Mildred, 2016) by arguing that an employee feels satisfied when assigned tasks that are challenging enough to exploit his or her full potential. Therefore, employees will feel more motivated if they get involved in talent management. In goal setting theory Edwin Lock postulated that setting goals lead to higher performance. Involving employees in setting goals will not only engage them in accepting them but motivate them towards higher performance and satisfaction. Therefore, the participation of employees in talent management will lead to the high productivity of an organization. In a nutshell, theory X and Y, Two-factor theory and goal setting theory all support employees participation in realization of higher productions. These theories explain that employees’ involvement forms the basis of highly motivated and performing labour force. If this is the case, employee participation is essential in effective talent management especially internal skill development and external recruitment. Definition of Terms: Employee involvement, Employee involvement is creating an environment in which people have an impact on decisions and actions that affect their jobs. by (Heathfield, 2019) Employee participation, Employee participation involves management actively encouraging staff to assist in running and improving business processes and operations. Also known as employee involvement, employee participation includes management recognizing individual employees’ opinions and input, so that employees understand that management views them as unique and individually valuable to running the business. by (Redsteer, 2019) Talent management, An organization-wide, holistic strategy for hiring, training, and retaining top-performing employees. by (Ingwersen, 2018) Chapter II: Literature Review Multinational Talent Management The journal article is a study that is sourced from the book titled The Oxford Handbook of Talent Management by David Collings, Kamel Mellahi, and Wayne Cascio. It focuses on the ability of multinationals to manage the skills and the talent they have in their organizations across the board. Talent management is an expensive process which then prompts many multinational companies to use an integrated and standard design when it comes to talent management (Björkman, Ehrnrooth, Mäkelä, Smale, #038; Sumelius, 2017). Additionally, the study encourages the multi-corporations to step out of their comfort zone on talent management and implement better ways that fit the employees working in a particular culture. Similarly, Cascio, #038; Boudreau (2016) carry one with the same train of thought by highlighting the different factors that can be used in achieving global competence in countries they operate from; companies are continually seeking better ways of implementing talent management. The study also shifts the focus and identifies that it is companies that need to have a developmental change and also a change in perspective because they cling on old and traditional ways of talent management grounded in human resources. Another important point that is made is that the employees tend to gain more benefits when the company tailors their talent management based on the country and the culture. It is not all organizations that share the same perspective. Some businesses especially the small businesses and the local businesses tend to have a limited view of their enterprises and overlook the need for talent management. However, this study by Khilji, Tarique, #038; Schuler (2015) shows that talent management is not merely about the size of the employee pool but about perspective in the expansion of the business. Having a macro view regarding talent management in an organization helps the employees to increase their productivity and thus the profitability of the business. Multinational companies are also used encouraged to change their perspective so that they effectively manage their global talent. Krishnan, #038; Scullion (2017) supports the ideas expressed in the study. In a study conducted by Krishnan, #038; Scullion, (2017) showed that many small and medium enterprises have a traditional view of talent management. On the other hand, Morris, Snell, #038; Björkman, (2016) proposes a framework for global talent management that companies that use in redesigning. Effectiveness in Talent Management Many of the studies regarding talent management tend to neglect the perspective of the employees who are the center of it all. It is ironic that talent management is sometimes done without the input of the employees whose role cannot be underestimated. In the study Talent management practice effectiveness: investigating employee perspective, by Khoreva, Vaiman, #038; Van Zalk, (2017) shows that employee perspective is critical to having effective management that is also effective. The effectiveness of talent management can be significantly influenced by the involvement of employees. Blind planning or planning with the exclusion of the employee does not have positive outcomes and even though some of these management styles may work; they are never truly effective. On the other hand, to determine the effectiveness, McDonnell, Collings, Mellahi, #038; Schuler, (2017) conducted a study that uses a systematic review process in identifying the reason behind the ineffectiveness of talent management. The paper begins by tracing the evolution of talent management which will undergo more changes with changes in the industry and also in the technology and appraisal methods used. Various themes in the paper are also highlighted to show the high performers and low performers. The systematic review showed that while talent management was evolving, the ways used and the strategies applied in managing talent in organizations were not changing with the same speed as the changing talent. Taking a focus on the hospitality industry, the study by Deery, #038; Jago (2015) aims to investigate the themes that are often discussed under effective talent management. Work-life balance and retention strategies are two elements that are critical in effective talent management. Management of talent requires the managers to properly identify their employees’ weaknesses and strengths and then helping them achieve their career goals while at the same time spurring productivity which directly impacts the organizations. Employees who understand their purpose in a company, due to the effective talent management in the company, tend to stay longer at the organization. The study urges the companies to consider work-life balance and retention strategies when redesigning talent management. Also taking a critical review of the approaches in talent management, the study takes a review and empirical research analysis. From the analysis by Gallardo-Gallardo, E., #038; Thunnissen, M. (2016) emphasizes on the use of new methods such as the application of methods derived from bibliometric and analysis of the content. Talent management, according to the authors will only present value when it is approached from a mature level. What this maturity means is that talent management should change with the employees such that it is relevant at all times and also change with the employees to remain applicable and successful. In addition, the literature urges the companies only to select that which is useful and applicable in their work environment as opposed to forcing all or any new methods in the industry. Organizations have to accept the transformation of talent management and rapidly take up tools and resources to help in managing their talent. Some of the new approaches use psychology such that the talent management attaches to performance management, recruitment, career development, employees attitudes, and testing. However, many corporations do not adopt these approaches and thus miss out on the impact created by using theories founded in psychology. Following the analysis, the findings showed that the focal articles on talent management between2008-2016 lacked the strategic approach that banked on research. Additionally, vetting talent management trends is also required. According to Rotolo, Church, Adler, Smither, Colquitt, Shull, #038; Foster (2018) banking on the researched theories and approaches will propel talent management further. Value of Talent Management and Value in Talent Management for Corporations Sparrow, #038; Makram, (2015) conducted a study that supplements the studies that aimed to investigate the value that can be gained by both employees and the organization. Many companies may feel the need to catch up with their competitors by blindly implementing talent management structure and then fail to provide value to the employees and the process lose both financially and talent wise. Employees are the focus when it comes to talent management seeing they are the ones with the skills and the talent needed by organizations. Therefore, they can be included in the decision making which is itself an addition of value. Sparrow, Hird, #038; Cooper (2015) in Strategic talent management. In Do We Need HR Tafti, Mahmoud Salehi, #038; Amiri (2017) conducted a study that focused on talent management and particularly critical success factors, obstacles and challenges in talent management. The study highlights these challenges by researching all the structural barriers that already exist in these organizations. These factors are categorized into four categories, and they are environmental challenges, managerial challenges, structural challenges and behavioral challenge.Conversely, the study was also categorized according to the talent management success and further subdivided into environmental success factors, managerial success factors, and structural success factors. Similarly, Thunnissen, (2016) also does a study that emphasizing on gaining value form the method that has been selected for talent management in organizations. These literature were useful in portraying the picture concerning talent management from different angles and perspectives. Employees Input is Importance in Effective Talent Management Chapter III: Critical Analysis/Discussion The literature review was critical in providing information regarding the areas and the approaches that have been used in the past by different authors. It was also useful in revealing the areas that have been neglected concerning the study of how employees can input and be involved in talent management while still maintaining a high level of effectiveness. The literature was also separated to include the various standpoints from which the issues of employee input and effective talent management have been viewed. The three viewpoints researched include multinational talent management and effectiveness in talent management. The literature that was discussed and included was relevant and focussed on either multinational talent management or effectiveness in talent management and in some cases both. On the literature that focussed on multinational talent management some of the similarities across the different sources was that planning and strategy are important in the quest of talent management and more so with the involvement of employees. A focus on the various ways that multinationals can apply the idea to all their branches and franchises across the globe was one of the aspects that were observed. The ability of the multi-corporations being able to strategize and maintain uniformity while still allowing for customization of the plans on talent management is one of the issues that is raised and discussed by the different literature. An exle is the journal article titled The Oxford Handbook of Talent Management by David Collings, Kamel Mellahi, and Wayne Cascio. The journal article has focused on multinational and the involvement of employees in effective talent management. One of the take outs from the literature sources that discussed the problem and in particular with a focus on the multinational is that one of the hurdles to implementation was the increased costs of managing talent. Another similarity between the sources in this category is the fact that they all encourage companies to step out of the comfort zones in talent management and instead find other ways of better handling talent and doing so effectively to the extent it becomes part of company practice. Another critical observation that was made was the fact that the companies have a responsibility of first evaluating their organizational culture and identifying how it has impacted the achievement of the goal of having an effective talent management process that also allows for the employee input. The other sources of multinational talent management also address similar issues. The journal articles identify the factors that can be used in the achievement of global competence in all the countries that the company has representation (Akram, Wayne, #038; Jaap, 2014). It also urges companies to always be on the outlook for the betterment of their talent management processes. A change of perspective is one of the main lessons that companies can take from the sources since there needs to first be a change in perspective and culture for any of the strategies and plan towards talent management remain applicable and useful. Lastly, both articles identify the strengths of customizing the process to fit the country of operation and the culture of the people in that host country. One of the missing elements in the previous source has been the idea of customizing the strategies and the plans such that they take the form of the host country and culture. However, one of the ideas that were emphasized on and stressed on was the fact that companies can be motivated to engage in the expensive process of talent management with employee involvement based on the benefits accrued as a result. Tailoring of talent management leads to numerous benefits with some being increasing the employee retention rate, increasing of performance and acceptance of organizational goals by employees among other benefits. Implications of failing to customize and involve employees in the process of talent management include the inability to grow and improve the talent management as well as lack of all the benefits that have been identified. Conversely, the literature on effective talent management was also useful in providing insight concerning the best approaches to use in the achievement of effective management of the talent. The similarity in the literature was the acceptance of the involvement of employees in the process of effective talent management. Some of the discrepancies found in the literature sources were the inability to measure the level of effectiveness concerning talent management. One of the sources also focused on an industry which means that all the suggestions and recommendations following the study would not be so easily transferable to other firms or industries since it was a bit specific. Additionally, the sources encouraged the companies to pursue effective talent management but offering little guidance on the various ways that goal can be achieved. However, the sources also highlighted some important elements in effective talent management by companies such as the acceptance of transformation of talent management. The suggestion of various approaches to implementing were also provided which is important for companies looking to integrate certain practices in talent management with the help of their employees. These approaches were also based on psychology, and there was an emphasis on the to other components such as recruitment, employee attitudes, performance management, and career development. Chapter IV: Summary, Conclusion, and Recommendations Overall, the literature has proposed various ways the subject matter can be approached in terms of the involvement of employees in effective talent management. Some of the important elements from the review and analysis are that multinationals have to allow the integration process to be customized such that it not only matches the company plan for talent management but also recognizes the need for the culture and the country of operations. Also, the emphasis of companies trying approaches and solutions that are not in their comfort zones was another component that is useful. On the other hand, companies are encouraged to identify areas in their organizational culture that needs transformation for the strategy to work and be fully effective. That said, companies can use the recommendations offered by the studies in helping the transition of old and traditional practices to new and tested approaches for talent management (Mildred, 2016). One of the suggestions is to recognize the importance of employees’ engagement in the process and some of the benefits that are accrued as a result of employee engagement in talent management. Additionally, it was shown that deciding on an approach that also attaches to other areas such as employee attitudes and performance management is critical to the success of the process of talent management. References Akram, A. A., Wayne, F. C., #038; Jaap, P. (2014). Talent Management: Current Theories and Future Research Directions. Journal of World Business 49 , 173-179. Deepika, P., #038; Surna, R. (2018). Talent management and employee engagement – a meta-analysis of their impact on talent retention. Industrial and Commercial Training, Vol. 50 Issue: 4 , pp. 185-199. Leanna, L., Kopelman, R. J., #038; Prottas, D. J. (2015). McGregor’s Theory X/Y and Job Performance: A Multilevel, Multi-source Analysis. Journal of Managerial Issues, 27(1-4) , 84-101. Mildred, A. K. (2016). Effect of Employee Employment on Job Performannce at Kenya Medical Research Institute (Cenntre for Global Health Research) Kisumu. Nairobi: University of Nairobi. Payambarpour, S. A., #038; Hooi, C. (2015). The impact of talent management and employee engagement on organisational performance. International Journal of Management Practice 8(8 4) , 311-336. studies, i. f. (n.d.). Succession planning . (W. Hirsh, Interviewer) Violetta, K., Vlad, V., #038; Zalk, M. V. (2017). Talent management practice effectiveness: investigating employee perspective. Employee Relations, Vol. 39 Issue: 1 . Akram, A. A., Wayne, F. C., #038; Jaap, P. (2014). Talent Management: Current Theories and Future Research Directions. Journal of World Business 49 , 173-179. Deepika, P., #038; Surna, R. (2018). Talent management and employee engagement – a meta-analysis of their impact on talent retention. Industrial and Commercial Training, Vol. 50 Issue: 4 , pp. 185-199. Leanna, L., Kopelman, R. J., #038; Prottas, D. J. (2015). McGregor’s Theory X/Y and Job Performance: A Multilevel, Multi-source Analysis. Journal of Managerial Issues, 27(1-4) , 84-101. Mildred, A. K. (2016). Effect of Employee Employment on Job Performannce at Kenya Medical Research Institute (Cenntre for Global Health Research) Kisumu. Nairobi: University of Nairobi. Payambarpour, S. A., #038; Hooi, C. (2015). The impact of talent management and employee engagement on organisational performance. International Journal of Management Practice 8(8 4) , 311-336. studies, i. f. (n.d.). Succession planning . (W. Hirsh, Interviewer) Violetta, K., Vlad, V., #038; Zalk, M. V. (2017). Talent management practice effectiveness: investigating employee perspective. Employee Relations, Vol. 39 Issue: 1 .
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