(Mt) – Strategies for Implementing Change in an Organization Discussion

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Chapter 9: Action Planning and Implementation Chapter Overview • Change leaders have a “do it” attitude. Without action, nothing happens • Action planning involves planning the work and working the plan. “Right” decisions = approximately right, as you gain feedback and learn as you go • Action planning sorts out who does what, when, and how and tracks progress to promote learning and adaptation • Tools to help you manage the process are discussed • Successful change agents effectively engage others in the journey, develop detailed communication plans and the transition Deszca, Ingols #038; Cawsey, Organizational Change: An Action-Oriented Toolkit, 4th ed.. © 2020 SAGE Pub. 2 The Change Path Model Awakening Chapter 4 • Mobilization Chapters 5 through 8 • • • Implementation planning that engages and empowers others Action planning tools Communications planning Managing the transition and after-action review Acceleration Chapter 9 Institutionalization Chapter 10 Deszca, Ingols #038; Cawsey, Organizational Change: An Action-Oriented Toolkit, 4th ed.. © 2020 SAGE Pub. 3 3 Approaches to Decision Making and Action Taking • Thinking First • when the issue is clear and the context structured • Seeing First • when many elements have to be combined into creative solutions, commitment is key and communication across boundaries is essential. People need to see the whole before becoming committed. • Doing First • when situation is novel and confusing, complicated specifications would get in the way and a few simple rules can help people move forward Deszca, Ingols #038; Cawsey, Organizational Change: An Action-Oriented Toolkit, 4th ed.. © 2020 SAGE Pub. 4 3 Generic Change Strategies Change Type Programmatic Change Discontinuous Change Emergent Change Characteristic Implementation Pitfalls Missions, plans, objectives Training, timelines, steering committees Lack of focus on behavior, one solution for all, inflexible solutions Initiated from top, clear break, reorientation Decrees, structural change, concurrent implementation Political coalitions derail change, weak controls, stress from the loss of people Ambiguous, incremental and challenging Use of metaphors, experimentation, and risk taking Confusion over direction, uncertainty, and possible slow results Deszca, Ingols #038; Cawsey, Organizational Change: An Action-Oriented Toolkit, 4th ed.. © 2020 SAGE Pub. 5 Working Your Plan • Mobilize commitment to change through joint diagnosis of business problems • Develop a shared vision of how to organize and manage for competitiveness • Foster consensus for the new vision, competence to enact it, and cohesion to move it along • Spread revitalization to all departments without pushing it from the top • Institutionalize revitalization through formal policies, systems, and structures • Monitor and adjust strategies in response to problems in the revitalization process Deszca, Ingols #038; Cawsey, Organizational Change: An Action-Oriented Toolkit, 4th ed.. © 2020 SAGE Pub. 6 Working Your Plan 1. Think of a change situation you are familiar with. Return to Table 9.1 and consider whether it is a: a) Programmatic change b) Discontinuous change c) Emergent change 2. How well was it handled? Was the appropriate approach or should it have been handled differently? Deszca, Ingols #038; Cawsey, Organizational Change: An Action-Oriented Toolkit, 4th ed.. © 2020 SAGE Pub. 7 Steps to Effective Change—Beer et al.’s Six Steps 1. Mobilize commitment through joint diagnosis 2. Develop a shared vision 3. Foster consensus for the new vision, competence to enact it, and cohesion to move it along 4. Spread revitalization to all departments without pushing it from the top 5. Institutionalize revitalization through formal policies, systems, and structures 6. Monitor and adjust strategies as you go Deszca, Ingols #038; Cawsey, Organizational Change: An Action-Oriented Toolkit, 4th ed.. © 2020 SAGE Pub. 8 Jick’s Ten Commandments 1. Analyze the organization and its need for change 2. Create a vision and a common direction 3. Separate from the past 4. Create a sense of urgency 5. Support a strong leader role 6. Line up political sponsorship 7. Craft an implementation plan 8. Develop enabling structures 9. Communicate, involve people, and be honest 10. Reinforce and institutionalize change Deszca, Ingols #038; Cawsey, Organizational Change: An Action-Oriented Toolkit, 4th ed.. © 2020 SAGE Pub. 9 Kotter’s Eight-Stage Process 1. Establish a sense of urgency 2. Create a guiding coalition 3. Develop a vision and strategy 4. Empower broad-based action 5. Communicate the change vision 6. Generate short-term wins 7. Consolidate gains and produce more change 8. Anchor new approaches in the culture Deszca, Ingols #038; Cawsey, Organizational Change: An Action-Oriented Toolkit, 4th ed.. © 2020 SAGE Pub. 10 Lueck’s Seven Steps for Change • Identify the leadership • Focus on results, not activities • Start change at the periphery, then let it spread to other units, pushing it from the top • Institutionalize success through formal policies, systems, and structures • Monitor and adjust strategies in response to problems in the change process Deszca, Ingols #038; Cawsey, Organizational Change: An Action-Oriented Toolkit, 4th ed.. © 2020 SAGE Pub. 11 “No Plan Survives First Contact” • While it is critical to plan and anticipate, planning is a means not an end. • Don’t ignore vital emerging information just because it does not fit with carefully conceived plans. • Contingencies and alternative ways of approaching change are important contributors to enhanced adaptive capacity. Deszca, Ingols #038; Cawsey, Organizational Change: An Action-Oriented Toolkit, 4th ed.. © 2020 SAGE Pub. 12 Action Planning Tools 1. To Do Lists—A checklist of things to do 2. Responsibility Charting—Who will do what, when, where, why, and how 3. Contingency Planning—Consideration of what should be done when things do not work as planned on critical issues. Tools to aid with this include decision tree analyses and scenario analyses 4. Flow Charting Deszca, Ingols #038; Cawsey, Organizational Change: An Action-Oriented Toolkit, 4th ed.. © 2020 SAGE Pub. 13 Action Planning Tools (cont.) 5. Design Thinking 6. Surveys and Survey Feedback 7. Project Planning and Critical Path Methods for Scheduling 8. Tools that assess outcomes and stakeholders (discussed in Ch. 6), including: a)Commitment Charts b)The Adoption Continuum (AIDA) c) Cultural Mapping Deszca, Ingols #038; Cawsey, Organizational Change: An Action-Oriented Toolkit, 4th ed.. © 2020 SAGE Pub. 14 Action Planning Tools (cont.) 9. Leverage Analysis 10. Training and Development Tools 11. Diverse Change Approaches Deszca, Ingols #038; Cawsey, Organizational Change: An Action-Oriented Toolkit, 4th ed.. © 2020 SAGE Pub. 15 Responsibility Charting Decisions or Actions to be Taken Action 1 Responsibilities Susan Ted Sonja R A I For meeting on Jan 14 R I May 24 A A Draft Plan by Feb 17 Action by July 22 Action 2 Action 3 S Relevant Dates Etc… Coding: R = Responsibility (not necessarily authority) A = Approval (right to veto) S = Support (put resources toward) I = Inform (to be consulted before action) Deszca, Ingols #038; Cawsey, Organizational Change: An Action-Oriented Toolkit, 4th ed.. © 2020 SAGE Pub. 16 Project Planning Exle 1 Opportunity Identification Concept Development Product Design Process Design Commercial Production Opportunity Identification Cycle Time Concept Development Product Design Process Design Exle 2 Schilling #038; Hill, 1998 Commercial Production Organizing task to allow for parallel processes to occur has been shown to save time. Deszca, Ingols #038; Cawsey, Organizational Change: An Action-Oriented Toolkit, 4th ed.. © 2020 SAGE Pub. 17 Level of Commitment to Action LOW • Opposed to the Change • Neutral to the Change • Let It Happen (weak support) • Help It Happen • Make It Happen HIGH Deszca, Ingols #038; Cawsey, Organizational Change: An Action-Oriented Toolkit, 4th ed.. © 2020 SAGE Pub. 18 Stage of Adoption • Awareness • Becoming altered to the existence of something new, such as a product, service, or procedure • Interest • A growing inquisitiveness about the nature and benefits of the new idea • Desire/Appraisal • Studying strengths and weaknesses of new idea and its application to their area, followed by small-scale testing • Action/Adoption • Incorporating the new idea as part of the resources the adopter brings to their job Deszca, Ingols #038; Cawsey, Organizational Change: An Action-Oriented Toolkit, 4th ed.. © 2020 SAGE Pub. 19 Crossing the Adoption Chasm The Chasm or Tipping Point of Support That Needs to be Crossed Innovators Early Majority Early Adopters Laggards Late Majority Deszca, Ingols #038; Cawsey, Organizational Change: An Action-Oriented Toolkit, 4th ed.. © 2020 SAGE Pub. 20 Commitment Chart Level of Commitment Key Players Person1 Opposed Strongly to Weakly Neutral Let It Happen X →O X → Make It Happen Med X Person 2 Person 3 Help It Happen Level of Understanding (high, med, low) →O →O High Low Etc… Deszca, Ingols #038; Cawsey, Organizational Change: An Action-Oriented Toolkit, 4th ed.. © 2020 SAGE Pub. 21 Mapping People on the Adoption Curve Key Players Aware Person1 Interested Desire for Action X →O X Person 2 Person 3 Moving to Action or Adopting the Change X → →O Etc… Deszca, Ingols #038; Cawsey, Organizational Change: An Action-Oriented Toolkit, 4th ed.. © 2020 SAGE Pub. 22 Action Planning Checklist ✓ Is the action plan consistent with the analysis, vision, and objectives? ✓ Is your action plan realistic, given your influence, and the resources likely to be available to you? ✓ Are you and your team committed, and do have the competence and credibility to implement the action steps? If not, how will you address this? ✓ Is the plan time-sequenced in logical order? ✓ Is it clear who will do what, when, where, and how? ✓ What are the milestones and the probability of success at each step? Have you anticipated secondary consequences of your actions? Deszca, Ingols #038; Cawsey, Organizational Change: An Action-Oriented Toolkit, 4th ed.. © 2020 SAGE Pub. 23 Action Planning Checklist (cont.) ✓ Have you anticipated possible secondary consequences and lagging impacts your plans may have? ✓ Have you developed contingencies for risk areas and for how to proceed if things go better or differently than anticipated? ✓ Who does your plan rely on? Are they “on-side”? If not, what will it take to bring them “on-side”? ✓ Does your action plan take into account the concerns of stakeholders and possible coalitions they might form? ✓ Who (and what) could seriously obstruct the change? How will you manage them? Deszca, Ingols #038; Cawsey, Organizational Change: An Action-Oriented Toolkit, 4th ed.. © 2020 SAGE Pub. 24 Communication Needs for Different Phases in the Change Process Pre-Approval Phase Developing the Need for Change Phase Communication Communication plans to sell top plans to explain management the need for change, provide a rationale, reassure employees, and clarify the steps in the change process. Mid Stream Change Phase Confirming the Change Phase Communication plans to inform people of progress and to obtain feedback on attitudes and issues, to challenge any misconceptions, and to clarify new organizational roles, structures, and systems. Communication plans to inform employees of the success, to celebrate the change, and to prepare the organization for the next change. Deszca, Ingols #038; Cawsey, Organizational Change: An Action-Oriented Toolkit, 4th ed.. © 2020 SAGE Pub. 25 Communicating for Change 1. Message and media redundancy are key for message retention. Carefully consider the impact and use of social media and how others affected may use it 2. Face-to-face communication is most effective 3. Line authority is effective in communications 4. The immediate supervisor is key 5. Opinion leaders need to be identified and used 6. Employees pick up and retain personally relevant information more easily than other types of information Deszca, Ingols #038; Cawsey, Organizational Change: An Action-Oriented Toolkit, 4th ed.. © 2020 SAGE Pub. 26 Influence Strategies for Change 1. Education and communication 2. Participation and involvement 3. Facilitation and support 4. Negotiation and agreement 5. Manipulation and co-option 6. Explicit and implicit coercion 7. Systemic adjustment Deszca, Ingols #038; Cawsey, Organizational Change: An Action-Oriented Toolkit, 4th ed.. © 2020 SAGE Pub. 27 Toolkit Exercise 9.2—Action Plans for Influencing Reactions to Change 1. Which of the following strategies have you seen used to overcome resistance to action plans? a. b. c. d. e. f. g. Education and communication? Participation and involvement? Facilitation and support? Negotiation and agreement? Manipulation and co-optation? Explicit and implicit coercion? Systemic adjustments? 2. What were the consequences of the methods? 3. Which of these methods are you most comfortable with using? Which do you have the skills to use? Deszca, Ingols #038; Cawsey, Organizational Change: An Action-Oriented Toolkit, 4th ed.. © 2020 SAGE Pub. 28 Toolkit Exercise 9.3 (cont.) Additional Lenses on Influence Tactics a. b. c. d. e. f. g. h. i. j. Inspirational appeals Consultation: seeking the participation of others Relying on the informal system: existing norms and relationships Personal appeals: friendship, loyalty Ingratiation: praise, flattery, friendliness Rational persuasion: using data Exchange or reciprocity Coalition building Using rules or legitimating tactics Appeals to higher authorities – Which of the above have you used? How successful were they? – How comfortable are you with each method? Deszca, Ingols #038; Cawsey, Organizational Change: An Action-Oriented Toolkit, 4th ed.. © 2020 SAGE Pub. 29 Push and Pull Tactics • Push Tactics • Use of facts, logic, and/or pressure (e.g., use of guilt and fear) to push people toward the change • Pull Tactics • Inspirational appeals and other influence tactics designed to attract and pull people toward the change Deszca, Ingols #038; Cawsey, Organizational Change: An Action-Oriented Toolkit, 4th ed.. © 2020 SAGE Pub. 30 Implementation Tactics and Success Tactic Percentage Use Initial Adoption Rate Ultimate Adoption Rate Time to Adopt (months) Intervention 16% 82% 11.2 Participation 20 81 71 19.0 Persuasion 35 65 49 20.0 Edict 29 51 35 21.5 Deszca, Ingols #038; Cawsey, Organizational Change: An Action-Oriented Toolkit, 4th ed.. © 2020 SAGE Pub. 31 A Checklist for Change: Transition Management Transition Management: managing the implementation of the change project ✓ How will the organization continue to operate as it shifts from one state to the next? ✓ Who will answer questions about the proposed change? What decision power will they have? ✓ Do the people in charge of the transition have the appropriate authority to make decisions necessary to ease the change? ✓ Have we developed ways to reduce the anxiety created by the change and increase the positive excitement over it? Deszca, Ingols #038; Cawsey, Organizational Change: An Action-Oriented Toolkit, 4th ed.. © 2020 SAGE Pub. 32 A Checklist for Change: Transition Management (cont.) ✓ Have we worked on developing a problem-solving climate around the change process? ✓ Have we thought through the need to communicate the change? Who needs to be seen individually? Which groups need to be seen together? What formal announcement should be made? ✓ Have the people handling the transition thought about how they will capture the learning from the change process and share it? ✓ Have we thought about how we will measure and celebrate progress and how we will bring about closure to the project and capture the learning so it is not lost (after-action review)? Deszca, Ingols #038; Cawsey, Organizational Change: An Action-Oriented Toolkit, 4th ed.. © 2020 SAGE Pub. 33 What Makes for a Good Action Plan? 1. It can be done! 2. Organized as a timed sequence of conditional moves 3. Responsibility charts: who does what, when, why, how? 4. Measures and Outcomes are specified 5. The plan is consistent with analysis and objectives Deszca, Ingols #038; Cawsey, Organizational Change: An Action-Oriented Toolkit, 4th ed.. © 2020 SAGE Pub. 34 What Makes for a Good Action Plan? (cont.) 6. Resources are available: money and people 7. Real “buy in” is there—involvement and public commitment, coalitions are considered 8. Early positives exist to help build momentum 9. Most importantly, you have the Vision and Goals needed to guide you in the right direction Deszca, Ingols #038; Cawsey, Organizational Change: An Action-Oriented Toolkit, 4th ed.. © 2020 SAGE Pub. 35 Summary • “Doing it” demands a good plan and a committed team who will work that plan • Several strategies for approaching change and planning the work are discussed. Change agents, like good coaches, adjust as they go • Action planning tools are discussed • Effective action planning and implementation requires careful attention to communication and transition management Deszca, Ingols #038; Cawsey, Organizational Change: An Action-Oriented Toolkit, 4th ed.. © 2020 SAGE Pub. 36 The first student : Rema Any company desiring to remain profitable and competitive in the marketplace must have a constant change in it. The biggest challenge for any company is managing change, despite the type of change the company wants, whether the change is to introduce a new technology, update business processes, improve customer service, or even digital transformation, whatever change is required to occur in the company, the change implementation plan It is tailored to greatly facilitate the company’s change and transition processes. To make the change process successful and highly effective, there are several steps to take, which are: First: The company determines what will change. A change in a company for the purpose of improving a product or service; Therefore, it is important to clearly define and clarify goals. Next, the company must submit a business case followed by an explanation of the change plan (Cawsey et al, 2016). All this results in the realization and successful implementation of the change plan. Second: Collecting data for the evaluation process. When carrying out the planning process, there should be data in a clear and detailed manner explaining the corporate culture, what are the leadership capabilities and employee behavior of the company (El-Sofany, et al., 2012). Variable packages are offered to employees and stakeholders in the company. Therefore, it is extremely important that the two important parties who run the business have the ability to accept or reject the proposed plans. Third: Preparing for the change process. It is very important to prepare the action plan for the change. Where it is determined what approach must be taken and what is the target destination for change. This is done by creating a roadmap that defines the starting point and steps to follow. Johnson (1992) focuses in the processes of change on the resources required in them. And then it is a critical step when there is planning to define what are the broad and basic lines of the change process, with a focus on the required goals in a clear and measurable way. In order to measure and determine whether the plan is achievable and its success. Fourth: Communication and Communication. The golden key that embodies the full practice of change processes is open communication. Communication is an extremely important element, as communicating the preparations that the company must take before the change is crucial, and especially to the employees who work on it. Fifth: tracking the resistance, dealing with it, and planning the risks. Monitor and manage risks that occur during change, such as resistance to and dependency on these risks, as well as budgetary risks that are directly related to the change management strategy. Finally, sixth: Celebrating success. The company goes through stages of success, then regresses and improves again continuously and permanently. Any company, in the event of an unforeseen event or situations, takes a course of action, which is a contingency plan. In some cases, the emergency is positive, for exle: a sudden influx of money. But because the term “contingency plan” always refers to the occurrence of negative events or situations that have a negative impact on the company’s reputation, financial health, or even its ability to continue in business and competition. Exles include fire, floods, data breaches, company systems, network outages, and other sudden incidents. Contingency plan is very important to a corporate business continuity strategy, as it helps and works to ensure the company is prepared for any event that may affect it negatively (Burke, 2018). Many governmental organizations and large companies prepare many contingency plans, where the specialized team develops an emergency plan to research and impose many potential threats, and its impact and its response to the emergency plan are fully tested before the crisis occurs. One of the advantages of the company’s contingency plans is to reduce losses in the event of a crisis Imran et al. (2016). There are a number of components commonly used in an emergency plan, namely: First: the Incident Response Plan (IRP), which focuses on the immediate response to the accident. Second: Disaster Recovery Plan (DRP), which works to restore operations in the main site after a disaster. Third: Business Continuity Plan (BCP), which works to create an alternative location for establishing operations, so that the company can regain its energy and resume operations again, whether in its primary location or research and identifying a new initial site (Scott, 2018). References Burke, W. (2018). Organization change: Theory and practice. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications Cawsey, T. F., Deszca, G., #038; Ingols, C. (2016). Organizational change: An action-oriented toolkit (3rd ed.).Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publishing. El-sofany, H., Al-Tourki, T., Al-Howimel, H., #038; Al-Sadoon, A. (2012). E-Government in Saudi Arabia: Barriers, challenges and its role of development. International Journal of Computer Applications, 48(5). Imran, M. K., Rehman, C. A., Aslam, U., #038; Bilal, A. R. (2016). What’s organization knowledge management strategy for successful change implementation?. Journal of Organizational Change Management, 29(7), 1097-1117. The second student : Hadeel Action plan plays a very important role while implanting the change strategy. It eventually awares the staff of the organization from the actual needful action that is to be required in order to achieve the longer term benefits. In this discussion I would be focusing on the action plan implemented by the Saudi electric company in order to facilitate the change management procedures. Saudi electric company is the national power sector company of the region and is mainly responsible for the supply and distribution of electricity throughout the country. Recently keeping in mind the state of the art requirements of the modern day business, company decided to introduce some change management policies in order to improve their overall market position. The Saudi electric company decided to introduce some basic action plan steps in order to initiate the change procedures within their organization. Firstly the company changed the appraisal policy. From years the company following the traditional seniority based appraisal systems and many people gained huge benefits from this appraisal system. Eventually the company realized that in the market the trend of salary appraisals have been changed totally. Hence keeping in view this thing, the company introduced the “KPI (Key performance indicator) system for the annual appraisals system. According to this system, all the employees of the SEC, would be analyzed on the basis of the objectives assigned to them. Secondly the company decided to implement the macro-management strategy, while wiping out the micromanagement levels. The higher management of the company observed that from years, some specific people were enjoying the bounties of the company in terms of authorities and power. Also this culture was limiting the young staff to come in the front line of the competition. Eventually the company decided that they powers will be divided equally throughout the company and young people will be allotted senior roles in order to achieve the future targets. For this the company appointed young people over the senior managers, while providing the senior people with some fringe benefits in order to reduce their fears of job loosing. And the higher management made this thing sure that the appointed young people will lead their departments from the front line, while the senior managers will be their guiding and supporting hands. Lastly the company decided to implement the training of their employees. Mostly it has been observed that the public sector companies finds its quiet difficult when it comes to the training of its employees. Normally the private companies have developed certain sops, regarding their employees training but unfortunately in case of public sector companies, this practice is not considered a regular part of their business. So eventually the higher management of the company decided to include some training workshops for their employees in order to make them aware from the ongoing business trends around the globe. Initially the company faced the resistance in terms decreased level of interest among the people to attend these workshops. But gradually people realized for the longer perspective, they strongly need to change themselves. Furthermore in my opinion, change is the natural requirement of every business. Sometimes this could a forced one or in some cases it could be the selfimplemented form. It’s the responsibility of the higher management, that they implement the change in such a way, that it doesn’t impacts the exiting business processes or working cultures. Whereas on the other side the senior management must make sure that the implemented action plan must not generate conflicts with the social or moral values of the employees within the organization.

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