(Mt) – OPS 400 CSU Operations Quality Management Paper

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1 Week 2 Portfolio Milestone The organization that I have chosen to cover in my Portfolio Project is Apple Inc. Apple’s company mission is to deliver top consumer experience to their consumers with pioneering services, hardware, and software. Apple Inc. is a manufactured goods-orientated business that concentrates on enhancing the quality of its goods with invention and technology expansion to distinguish its goods from its competitors. They are a multi-national company with businesses all over the globe. Citation that I would include in as a final reference is as follows, Clarke, T., #038; Boersma, M. (2017). The governance of global value chains: Unresolved human rights, environmental and ethical dilemmas in the apple supply chain. Journal of Business Ethics, 143(1), 111-131. 1 Option #1: Operations Management Forecasting Paper Jennifer Cvoric Colorado State University Global OPS400: Operations Management Peter Billington 03/13/2022 2 Option #1: Operations Management Forecasting Paper Production forecasting methods of operations management are used by businesses to put their production strategy into action. Reasonably predicting future demand and consumption levels is integral to production efficiency. In a world of lean management, businesses endeavor to minimize costs and hold excessive working capital in nonmoving goods (Kolassa #038; Siemsen, 2016). This is the essence of operations management forecasting. Business managers promote efficiency in processes by estimating demand and aligning the production capacity and other inputs into demand. This paper aims at applying theoretical concepts of operations management forecasting. The first section discussed the importance of operations management forecasting, followed by a brief overview of the simulation experience and the strategies used in performing forecasting simulation. The last section provides a brief overview of the lessons learned from the simulation. Operation management forecasting and its significance Forecasting is the process of projecting potential future outcomes for a corporation using a variety of methodologies. Operations management oversees planning for these future outcomes (Bulligan et al., 2020). In addition, operations management includes overseeing the necessary procedures to make and deliver goods. Creating, developing, producing, and distributing goods for the business are important operations management components. The key benefit of forecasting is to give the management useful information that can be used to make decisions regarding the company’s future. Forecasting frequently relies on qualitative and quantitative data and expert opinion (Makridakis et al., 2008). An organization’s strategic objectives, planning, strategies, procedures, and controls may benefit from operations management. One of the main goals of this business process is to efficiently manage an 3 organization’s resources to enable a company’s goods or services to reach their full potential (Kolassa #038; Siemsen, 2016). The nature and scope of operations management vary according to firms. Depending on the firm, it may encompass transportation, logistics, production, human resources, information, and inventory management. Forecasting Simulation Overview The forecasting simulation assumed being in a management position in an oil marketing company. As a leader in a volatile market, the challenge was determining the appropriate volume or amount of oil to order at any time. The goal was to ensure that forecasted amounts or quantities did not fall far off the actual level of demand. The alignment between forecasted demand and actual demand level was crucial in ensuring that the company held sufficient stock to satisfy customer demands while also avoiding costs related to holding too much oil with the potential for losses. The simulation provided monthly updates or emerging information that could shift demand levels enabling the decision-maker to either increase or decrease the volume of oil to order. Strategy for performing simulation The successful execution of the forecasting in the simulation relied heavily on the quality of information. My strategy involved determining the potential impact of the emerging information on the consumption level. If the information were likely to increase the demand level, I would increase the volume of oil ordered to reflect the rising demand. On the other hand, if the information suggested a possible drop in demand, I would decrease the demand level from the previous month’s actual demand level. However, I also had to evaluate if the information would impact the demand. Some information such as drastic changes in oil prices would 4 certainly affect demand levels. However, some information such as possible pipeline construction next year will have minimal impact on the current demand level. Operations management forecasting methods/ Concepts Qualitative approach: Qualitative analysis is one of the techniques or methods used in operations management forecasting. This method involves the application of nonquantitative data to make decisions (Kolassa #038; Siemsen, 2016). During the simulation, I relied on instincts, experience, and emotions to decide whether to vary demand levels. Quantitative approach: This method utilizes statistical, historical data to make critical decisions (Bulligan et al., 2020). When performing the simulation, I relied on historical data (actual data of the previous month) to estimate or vary future demand based on available information. Current market conditions: Effective forecasting must rely on current market conditions to make decisions. This factor requires the decision-maker to have actionable information to guide decisions (Makridakis et al., 2008). In my case, I relied heavily on the current monthly information provided by the company on market conditions to make forecasting decisions. Lessons learned i. Forecasting is highly subjective: Forecasting relies to an extent on market conditions. However, there is no certainty when forecasting. Expectations may turn out very differently, with negative consequences to the business. ii. Forecasters should have a thorough knowledge of changing market conditions. The quality of forecasting decisions depends on the knowledge of the market factors. Failure to notice significant market changes can seriously undermine the quality of forecasting. 5 iii. Forecasting is affected by multiple factors. These factors include extreme weather conditions, political decisions, changes in the regulatory framework, government taxation policies, and many others. This means that demand levels are unlikely to remain the same for long. One of these factors can easily alter the total demand. Conclusion Operations management forecasting plays an important role in organizations. The simulation experience demonstrated that effective forecasting should utilize current market information to assess future demand reasonably. Forecasting should integrate qualitative and quantitative data to reach the outcome. 6 References Bulligan, G., Golinelli, R., #038; Parigi, G. (2010). Forecasting industrial production: the role of information and methods. Bank for International Settlements, IFC Bulletin, 33, 227-35. Kolassa, S., #038; Siemsen, E. (2016). Demand forecasting for managers. Business Expert Press. Makridakis, S., Wheelwright, S. C., #038; Hyndman, R. J. (2008). Forecasting methods and applications. John Wiley #038; sons. 1 Option #1: Operations Quality Management Paper Jennifer Cvoric Colorado State University Global OPS400: Operations Management Peter Billington 03/20/2022 2 Option #1: Operations Quality Management Paper Operations quality management is an essential component of organizational leadership. This concept ensures that organizations undertake necessary measures to ensure efficiency and customer satisfaction across business processes. In the contemporary business environment where competitiveness is achieved on quality and cost control margins, operations quality management becomes critical in strategic planning (Yan, 2018). This paper reviewed operations and quality management and its application in a simulation. Importance of operations quality management Operations quality management plays essential contributions in an organization. One of the central aspects of this process is the drive towards cutting wastage and cost. Cost management helps ensure that the company can generate optimal revenues while cutting down costs. The result of this management practice will be evidenced in increased profitability and turnover (Yan, 2018). Second, when organizations invest in customer satisfaction, the organization stands a strong chance of developing a solid customer base. Quality optimization ensures that customers remain happy and loyal to a business because they feel valued (Cai, 2015). A business will become competitive, resilient, and profitable through improved quality metrics, contributing to realizing strategic goals. Customer satisfaction is the foundation of every successful business. Overview of the simulation exercise The simulation exercise entailed managing the quality of customer care, lowering operational costs, and maximizing revenues. Together, these factors created a need for the operations quality manager to invest in a business to improve quality or customer satisfaction. However, in committing resources to the organizational expenses, the manager risks failing to hit the profit goal of $36,000 in a year. The simulation was modeled to mirror accurate business 3 decisions such as managing employee performance, reviewing customer sentiments to understand changing expectations, and taking day-to-day actions to ensure that the business activities and decisions align with customer expectations. Every decision was time-bound, meaning that the effectiveness of each decision relied on timeliness and responsiveness to customer and business needs. Strategy for performing the quality management simulation Successful simulation performance resulted from a careful review of online customer sentiments. I applied the operations quality management concept of placing the customer at the center of decision-making. This concept requires the business decisions made to reflect the overall interests and needs of the customer (Cai, 2015). I read the reviews regularly and was adequately informed of the changing customer expectations. This knowledge formed the basis for all decisions. I did not ignore customer demands, even if they appeared to be unreasonable. Second, I also examined the availability of cash to make investments and how such investments could impact business outcomes. Stevenson et al. (2014) aver that quality management decisions have to be made within the context of strategic business goals. Quality management concepts, methods, and techniques Customer-centric The customer remains the most critical stakeholder in quality management. This approach requires decision-makers to ensure that the customer remains the ultimate beneficiary of stakeholder decisions across the organization. A customer-centric approach is at the heart of all corporate governance decisions because the business may have no reason to exist (Yan, 2018). Customers are so critical that every operations quality manager must align with their changing expectations. Managers must acquire a thorough understanding of this concept because 4 of its vast implications on its growth, profitability, and long-term existence. One aspect that operations quality managers must make relates to forecasting customer demands and preferences to ensure that their decisions agree. Process approach The process approach to organizational management refers to having a holistic understanding of company activities linked with each (Stevenson et al., 2014). This is a crucial principle to remember while building a company system and making individual business choices. The process approach will begin with defining business processes and the intended outcome. This choice is likely to result in the capacity to identify and quantify the process’s inputs and outputs, identify where business processes interface with organizational activities and assess any possible risks, repercussions, or effects on customers or other internal and external stakeholders. Leadership Leadership at all levels of an organization plays an essential part in business management. Having leaders at all levels of an organization will help an organization build a shared vision across all stakeholders. It is instrumental in creating circumstances where all employees remain focused on attaining strategic goals. Leadership helps improve organizational coordination of all procedures (Stevenson et al., 2014). Leaders achieve this goal through solid communication strategies that run throughout the organization. Managers mustn’t confuse leadership with authority since the two serve different purposes. Lessons learned 1. Operations quality management requires a holistic understanding of how various organizational processes interact and affect customer outcomes. 5 2. An effective leader should ensure that all company stakeholders, especially employees, share a similar attitude and understanding of quality management because it requires all organizations to work as a unit. 3. Managers should regularly conduct customer surveys to understand their changing needs and expectations. Conclusion Quality management and process management are critical aspects of a successful business. Corporate managers should ensure that their decisions minimize company cost implications while fostering customer engagement. Some of the principles that guide operations quality management include customer-centric value, leadership, and process approach to decision-making. 6 References Cai, S. A. (2015). Introduction to Operations Management. Stevenson, W. J., Hojati, M., #038; Cao, J. (2014). Operations management (p. 182). Chicago-USA: McGraw-Hill Education. Yan, B. (2018). Operations management 1. 7 Appendix 1 Module 6: Portfolio Milestone Jennifer Cvoric Colorado State University Global OPS400: Operations Management Peter Billington 03/27/2022 2 Module 6: Portfolio Milestone Operations management is a concept widely applied in modern organizations. Given its importance, operations management (OM) has become a cornerstone of effective business management practices. [CITE] defined OM as the branch of management concerned with the efficient conversion of labor and materials into finished goods and services to maximize profitability and returns on investment while meeting consumer needs. Similarly, Cai (2015) defined OM as the administration and management of an organization’s operations and activities to maximize efficiency and returns. OM differs from project management in the focus and longevity of the strategic direction. Project management entails using specific tools, knowledge, skills-set, and experience to deliver defined project outcomes. Unlike OM, which is concerned with continuous and long-term organizational processes, project management focuses on temporary projects. Apple is one of the leading technology companies that apply operations management to realize its mission of bringing “the best user experience to customers through innovative hardware, software, and services” (Form 10-K, 2020). As part of its OM processes, Apple manufactures goods with an operational strategy emphasizing quality and efficiency through technological innovations. Quality Management Quality refers to the ability to satisfy a set of implicitly defined or explicitly stated characteristics. Quality may be understood as the value of objects, processes, and outcomes relative to their purposes. The management of operations quality is an essential aspect of organizational leadership. This notion guarantees that businesses take the steps necessary to achieve efficiency and customer satisfaction across their business operations. Operations quality management is crucial in strategic planning in today’s corporate climate, where competitiveness is based on quality and cost control margins. 3 Quality Management Best Practices Quality management (QM) relies on some well-defined practices of focusing on the customer, an organization-wide process approach, and visible leadership at all levels of authority. A customer-centric approach recognizes the critical role played by the customer in organizational outcomes. The knowledge of the customer allows the development of goods and services that meet the customer’s quality expectations (Stevenson et al., 2014). Similarly, QM requires focusing on the processes rather than individual components that deliver products or services. Since quality is a product of all subsystems, strategies designed to provide quality outcomes should be process-oriented and organization-wide. Lastly, QM requires visionary leadership that is visible throughout the organization (Stevenson et al., 2014). Leaders give direction to followers and are responsible for ensuring conformity to established quality metrics during the production and delivery of goods and services. Apple’s quality management methodology relies on building quality assurance systems throughout every stage of product development. The quality assurance system and defined metrics are adopted in the manufacturing process, transcending components’ sourcing, design of the prototypes, shipping, and custom manufacturing (Clarke #038; Boersma, 2017). While other companies design goods and use typical manufacturing processes, Apple adopts a hands-on approach by designing the actual manufacturing processes vital to producing the required quality outcomes (Clarke #038; Boersma, 2017). The company achieves this goal by completely controlling software and hardware development. Furthermore, the company adopts a customer-centric approach with the customer demands and expectations dictating product design. Lessons learned 4 The quality simulation offered tremendous lessons about how organizations manage quality outcomes. 1. A complete understanding of how multiple organizational activities interact and affect customer outcomes is required for operations quality management. 2. Because quality management requires all companies to function as a unit, a successful leader should guarantee that all firm stakeholders, particularly workers, have a comparable attitude and knowledge. 3. Managers should regularly conduct customer surveys to understand their shifting requirements and expectations. Apple’s House of Quality CUSTOMER REQUIREMENTS • Durable products • Friendly user interface • Multiple features • Interoperability • Rapid performance PRODUCT CHARACTERISTICS • • • • Research-oriented Highly reliable Easy to use Multiple usage Apple’s customers demand durable and user-friendly products. Products such as smartphones need to have multiple usability’s and the ability to connect and communicate with other electronic products (Clarke #038; Boersma, 2017). They should also assure speed in execution, 5 processing, and general performance. Apple’s product characteristics respond robustly to these requirements fulfilling the quality requirements. Apple ensures that its products stem from customer surveys that identify their needs and expectations. They are also long-lasting and easy to use, meeting the durability and friendly user interface. The smartphone can perform several functions at high-speed, including photography, internet surfing, voice calls, and text messaging (Form 10-K, 2020). These features ensure the elements of multiple features and rapid performance are achieved. Similarly, Apple products can communicate seamlessly with other electronics, including television sets, radio, refrigerators, and other household goods, satisfying the customer demands for interoperability. 6 References Cai, S. A. (2015). Introduction to Operations Management. Clarke, T., #038; Boersma, M. (2017). The governance of global value chains: Unresolved human rights, environmental and ethical dilemmas in the apple supply chain. Journal of Business Ethics, 143(1), 111-131. Form 10-K. (2020). Apple Inc. United States Securities and Exchange Commission. https://s2.q4cdn.com/470004039/files/doc_financials/2020/ar/_10-K-2020-(As-Filed).pdf Stevenson, W. J., Hojati, M., #038; Cao, J. (2014). Operations management (p. 182). Chicago-USA: McGraw-Hill Education.

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