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Module 2: Leading the Process of Organizational Change 1. Differentiating “How to Change?” from “What to Change?” Determining what to change can sometimes be as challenging as determining how to change. Changing the wrong problem or issues within an organization can be as destructive to its future performance as not making any changes at all. Also, changing the right problem or issue but utilizing a flawed process can prevent the change from being realized. Therefore, it becomes important to acknowledge both the what portion and the how portion as important components in the organization’s overall change management strategy. The International Journal of Public Administration recently completed a study on the strategic organizational change sought by King Abdulaziz University. The university embarked on a comprehensive change to the focus of their system and the way education was delivered. Importantly, the university sought to transform into a university that reflects some of the values associated with those in the Western world (Ali Alhazemi, Rees, #038; Hossain, 2013). That was one objective, among others, identified as the need for change, so the university was clearly focused on its intended ambitions. Once the university identified what to change, it needed to transition to how to effect the change. How to change can be a greater challenge because it requires, at a minimum, the active support and involvement of leadership. In this circumstance, King Abdulaziz University was fortunate in that the intended change was supported by the strategic ambitions of the Ministry of Higher Education, so leaders throughout the educational community were not only supportive of the initiatives but took a vested interest in achieving the anticipated outcomes (Ali et al., 2013). It is vital to acknowledge both the what portion and the how portion as important components in the organization’s overall change management strategy. 2. Lewin’s Change Theory Kurt Lewin was a world-renowned psychologist who became a pioneer in the study of communications and organization. His work has become a staple for those studying business, and he may be best known for his groundbreaking work related to change and change management. He created a three-step model of change, called Lewin’s Change Management Model, which forms the foundation of most of what we study and apply related to change management. Watch this video to learn more about his theory: https://youtu.be/E9tRZ2X-hhY This video is a representation of the steps of the unfreezing process. The basis of Lewin’s theory of change states that before you change something, you must “break down” what currently exists, create something new and better, and then crystalize what you have created so that it becomes unbreakable (Cummings, Bridgman, #038; Brown, 2016). The model created by Lewin uses water and ice as an analogy, which is one reason the words “unfreeze” and “freeze” are part of the parlance of the model. Flip through these tabs to learn more about this model: Stage 1: Unfreezing: The shape of what exists melts • • • • Employees are made aware of what needs to change. The previous strategy is “melted” away in anticipation of something new and different. At this stage, it is beneficial to relay to employees how they will benefit the most from this change. Employees who foresee the benefit of change often are most supportive of change. Stage 2: Transition: The organization explains the reason for change • • Employees are given the opportunity to question the change and offer critical feedback on how the change can be modified or implemented to better suit the needs of those throughout the organization. Leaders then utilize this information to create a new approach that they will implement in the near future. Stage 3: Refreezing: The change that has been implemented • Leaders and managers work to ensure the implemented change becomes part of the organization’s culture. • Depending on the change, this stage may involve revising the mission, vision, values, and strategic plans. The model is an outstanding metaphor to showcase that change is a process and one that is studied extensively before embarking on the change. Then, the change is announced with the expectation that there will be resistance throughout its implementation (unfreezing) and that the intended ambitions of the change will be modified as the organization travels through the process (transition). But once the change is implemented, it will become the new way in which the organization conducts its business (refreezing). This is not to state that the change will be welcome as there are occasions when change will continually be resisted (for instance, an organizational change that results in reduced salaries for employees). But, in most cases, it will be an accepted fact within the organization. 3. Emotional Transitions Through Change Change occurs because of movement from one process to another and a change from the normal way business is conducted. Without a doubt, those who have benefitted by the present mode of circumstances will resist any change that affects the rewards that they currently receive or the status that they currently enjoy. Several processes can be utilized to better manage the process of emotions that employees and other stakeholders may feel as they encounter and confront change. Duck’s Five-Stage Change Curve is one process that is similar to Elisabeth Kubler-Ross’s emotional stages of ill patients: denial, anger, bargaining, depression, and acceptance (Cawsey, Deszca, #038; Ingols, 2016). This process references predictable human behavior involved with change and can help illuminate some of the challenges any change may encounter. Review this flowchart to learn more about Duck’s Five-Stage Change Curve: 1- Stagnation Occurs when people have an insufficient sense of threat or challenge from the external world 2- Preparation Begins with a dramatic announcement of change 3- Implementation Includes designing new organizational structures, job descriptions, and lots of other detailed plans, plus people’s mindsets, emotional maps, and habits 4- Determination Kicks in when people realize that the change is real and things will be different 5- Frruition Represents that hard work pays off and the organization seems new; feelings of confidence combine with being optimistic and energized The Change Path Model is another model that addresses the emotional transitions that can arise that impact intended changes in an organization. This model involves the following stages: Stage 1: Conducting an analysis to determine an organization’s impediments to change. Stage 2: Mobilizing the organization’s resources to ensure that stakeholders are aware of the reasons for this change and the projected rewards, once implemented. Stage 3: Accelerating the change to build momentum. Stage 4: Manage the transition. Stage 5: Institutionalize the change so that the change is part of the organization’s operational practices. Watch this video to learn about another model, pioneered by Kotter, for creating major change: https://youtu.be/1QWiMkXyTP4 Kotter’s eight-stage process is one of the most widely recognized models for change management. Change is a dramatic, often chaotic, but necessary process. Organizations that survive are those that understand their past and can effectively forecast their future. They understand that the accomplishments of yesterday will not produce the achievements of tomorrow unless the organization can adapt and change. Organizations that can change to meet those ambitions will not only survive but thrive in the years ahead. References Ali Alhazemi, A., Rees, C., #038; Hossain, F. (2013). Implementation of strategic organizational change: The case of King Abdul Aziz University in Saudi Arabia. International Journal of Public Administration, 36. Retrieved from doi:10.1080/01900692.2013.773036 Cawsey, T. F., Deszca, G., #038; Ingols, C. (2016). Organizational change: An action-oriented toolkit (3rd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications. Cummings, S., Bridgman, T., #038; Brown, K. (2016). Unfreezing change as three steps: Rethinking Kurt Lewin’s legacy for change management. Human Relations, 69(1), 3360. Retrieved from http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/pdf/10.1177/0018726715577707 Chapter 2: How to Lead Organizational Change: Frameworks Chapter Overview • Chapter 2 differentiates between HOW to change and WHAT to change. Change leaders must understand both. • This chapter focuses on HOW to create change • Six process-oriented models of planned, purposeful change are discussed • The last of these is the Change Path Model: it is the guiding framework used in this book • These six models will give you language to articulate models of how to bring about organizational change Deszca, Ingols #038; Cawsey, Organizational Change: An Action-Oriented Toolkit, 4th ed.. © 2020 SAGE Pub. 2 Getting a Handle on the Change Challenge Two distinct aspects in any change management situation need to be addressed: • WHAT needs to change • HOW to bring about that change Deszca, Ingols #038; Cawsey, Organizational Change: An Action-Oriented Toolkit, 4th ed.. © 2020 SAGE Pub. 3 Sigmoid Curve Deszca, Ingols #038; Cawsey, Organizational Change: An Action-Oriented Toolkit, 4th ed.. © 2020 SAGE Pub. 4 Nature of Managed Organizational Change: Lewin’s View Unfreeze Change Refreeze Deszca, Ingols #038; Cawsey, Organizational Change: An Action-Oriented Toolkit, 4th ed.. © 2020 SAGE Pub. 5 Kotter’s Eight-Stage Process 1. Establishing a sense of urgency 2. Creating a guiding coalition 3. Developing a vision and strategy 4. Communicate the change vision 5. Empower employees 6. Generate short-term wins 7. Consolidate gains and produce more change 8. Anchor the new approaches in the culture Deszca, Ingols #038; Cawsey, Organizational Change: An Action-Oriented Toolkit, 4th ed.. © 2020 SAGE Pub. 6 Gentile’s Giving Voice to Values • Clarification and articulation of one’s values • Post decision-making analysis and implementation plan • The practice of speaking one’s values and receiving feedback from peers Deszca, Ingols #038; Cawsey, Organizational Change: An Action-Oriented Toolkit, 4th ed.. © 2020 SAGE Pub. 7 Duck’s Five-Stage Change Curve • Stagnation • Preparation • Implementation • Determination • Fruition Deszca, Ingols #038; Cawsey, Organizational Change: An Action-Oriented Toolkit, 4th ed.. © 2020 SAGE Pub. 8 Beckhard and Harris’ Change Process Model Deszca, Ingols #038; Cawsey, Organizational Change: An Action-Oriented Toolkit, 4th ed.. © 2020 SAGE Pub. 9 The Change Path Model Awakening Chapter 4 Mobilization Chapters 5 through 8 Acceleration Chapter 9 Institutionalization Chapter 10 Deszca, Ingols #038; Cawsey, Organizational Change: An Action-Oriented Toolkit, 4th ed.. © 2020 SAGE Pub. 10 Components of the Model • Awakening: Why change? What data helps to wake people up? • Mobilization: Gap analysis—the desired future state and the present state • Acceleration: Getting there from here— action planning and implementation • Institutionalization: Monitoring, measuring the change, and helping to make the change stick Deszca, Ingols #038; Cawsey, Organizational Change: An Action-Oriented Toolkit, 4th ed.. © 2020 SAGE Pub. 11 Toolkit Exercise 2.2 Interview a Manager ❖ Interview a manager who has been involved in implementing an organizational change. Ask them to describe the change, what they were trying to accomplish, and what happened? ❖ HOW did the managers work to make things happen? Who did they involve? How did they persuade others? What resources did they use? ❖ Describe WHAT was being changed. Why were these things important? ❖ Which was more important to the change in the end: HOW things were changed or WHAT was changed? Deszca, Ingols #038; Cawsey, Organizational Change: An Action-Oriented Toolkit, 4th ed.. © 2020 SAGE Pub. 12 Summary • We need to differentiate between WHAT needs to change and HOW to change • This chapter has focused on the HOW change is accomplished, i.e., the process • The HOW of change is all about managing the process. This chapter gives us ways of thinking about this process with particular attention to the Change Path Model Deszca, Ingols #038; Cawsey, Organizational Change: An Action-Oriented Toolkit, 4th ed.. © 2020 SAGE Pub. 13
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