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College of Administrative and Financial Sciences Assignment 1 MGT403-Knowledge Management Deadline: End of Week 7, 04/03/2021 @ 23:59 Course Name: Knowledge Management Student’s Name: Course Code: MGT 403 Student’s ID Number: Semester: 2nd Sem. CRN: Academic Year: 1441/1442 H For Instructor’s Use only Instructor’s Name: Students’ Grade: Marks Obtained/ 5 Level of Marks: High/Middle/Low Instructions – PLEASE READ THEM CAREFULLY • The Assignment must be submitted on Blackboard (WORD format only) via allocated folder. • Assignments submitted through email will not be accepted. • Students are advised to make their work clear and well presented; marks may be reduced for poor presentation. This includes filling your information on the cover page. • Students must mention question number clearly in their answer. • Late submission will NOT be accepted. • Avoid plagiarism, the work should be in your own words, copying from students or other resources without proper referencing will result in ZERO marks. No exceptions. • All answered must be typed using Times New Roman (size 12, double-spaced) font. No pictures containing text will be accepted and will be considered plagiarism). • Submissions without this cover page will NOT be accepted. ASSIGNMENT-1 Knowledge Management (MGT-403) 2nd Semester (2020-2021) Course Learning Outcomes-Covered 1 Demonstrate understanding of overall knowledge management concepts, goals and strategies within the context of organization 2 Explain issues pertaining to work with tacit knowledge #038; support its sharing 3 Explain processes of knowledge management in companies Submission Guidelines ❖ All students are encouraged to use their own words. ❖ This assignment is individual assignment. ❖ Be very specific and focused on the issue while answering a question. ❖ Student must apply Saudi Electronic University academic writing standards and APA style guidelines and review at least three (3) scholarly, peer-reviewed journal articles to support their answer for each question. ❖ A mark of zero will be given for any submission that includes copying from other resource without referencing it. ❖ No marks will be given for irrelevant details. ❖ It is strongly encouraged that you should submit all assignments into the safe assignment Originality Check prior to submitting it to your instructor for grading. ❖ If the assignment shows more than 25% plagiarism, the students would be graded zero. Assignment 1. This Assignment is based on the Material covered in week 2 to week 4. The focus of the assignment is to evaluate the understanding level of students related to basic concepts of knowledge management. Students are required to: Read the material covered in week 2 to week 4 thoroughly from book as well as other sources. Based on your readings answer the following questions. Assignment Questions Question 1: Explain the concept of Knowledge management. Discuss the role of knowledge management in present day organizations. (1 Mark) Question 2: a. Describe how the major types of knowledge are transformed in the Nonaka and Takeuchi knowledge spiral model of KM. Use a concrete exle to make your point. (1 Mark) b. Which transformations would prove to be the most difficult? Why? (0.5 Mark) c. Which transformation would prove to be easy? Why? (0.5 Mark) d. What other key factors would influence how well the knowledge spiral model worked within a given organization? (0.5 Mark) Question 3: a. In what ways is the Choo and Weick KM model similar to the Nonaka and Takeuchi KM model? In what ways do they differ? (1 Mark) b. Why is it difficult to directly codify tacit knowledge? (0.5 Mark) Answer: 1. 2. 3. . . TOSHIBA Knowledge management MGT 403 14CHS ][اختر التاريخ ASHWAQZ CH 1 – Knowledge Management in Theory and Practice Week 1: Introduction to Knowledge Management (KM) Key KM concepts and their definitions Tacit and explicit knowledge Knowledge in action Knowledge to create value Introduction When asked, most company executives say their greatest asset is knowledge held by their employees They also state they have no idea how to manage this knowledge From physical assets to knowledge assets Knowledge has now become more valuable that physical “things” SABRE reservation system vs. airplanes Now – customer bill of rights, vouchers for delayed flights – customer satisfaction (and revenues) at an all-time low The 3 Generations of KM st 1 Generation: “if we only knew what we know” IT nd 2 Generation: “if we only knew who knows about….” PEOPLE rd 3 Generation: “if we could only organize our knowledge….” CONTENT Today’s Working Environment Increasing Complexity Today’s work environment is more complex due to an increase in the number of subjective knowledge items we need to attend to everyday Filtering over 200 emails, faxes, voicemail messages on a daily basis – how to prioritize? Having to “think on our feet” as expected response time has greatly decreased as well KM is a response to the challenge of trying to manage this complexity amidst information overload A “science of complexity” Knowledge and entropy production have an inverse relationship Hiring Scenario You have been asked to hire an assistant What sorts of things would you require from human resources? What questions would you ask HR? What would you require from all applicants? Applicant Information Curriculum vitae (resume) References Test results (e.g. language, aptitude) ….. Hiring Scenario Continued You have selected 3 of the applicants to go to the next stage – the interview. Write down 3-4 questions that you would ask of the candidate during the interview. Applicant Information Previous experience Reason why they are applying Role-playing or decision simulation Request they demonstrate bilingualism …… The ubiquitous “shared drive” All organizations have them They tend to be chaotically organized, if at all Organizing principles tacit Organize for me but what about others? Shared Drive Organization: Which one would you choose? Next challenge: Preserving valuable knowledge Organizational “amnesia” or forgetting Concept Analysis A method to better understand (and ultimately define) complex, subjective and value-laden concepts What is Knowledge Management? • KM is the systematic, explicit and deliberate building, renewal and application of knowledge to maximize an enterprise’s knowledge-related effectiveness and returns from knowledge assets (K. Wiig) • • KM is the process of capturing a company’s collective expertise wherever it resides: in databases, on paper, in people’s heads – and distributing it to wherever it can help produce the biggest payoff. (Hibbard) KM is getting the right knowledge to the right people at the right time so they can make the best decision (Petrash) More KM Definitions It is the attempt to recognize what is essentially a human asset buried in the minds of individuals, and leverage it into an organizational asset that can be accessed and used by a broader set of individuals on whose decisions the firm depends. —Larry Prusak KM applies systematic approaches to find, understand and use knowledge to create value (O’Dell) KM is the explicit control and management of knowledge within an organization aimed at achieving the company’s objectives (van der Spek) KM is the formalization of and access to experience, knowledge, and expertise that create new capabilities, enable superior performance, encourage innovation and enhance customer value (Beckman) A Concept Analysis Exercise What key attributes need to be present in a definition of Knowledge Management? What are some good exles? What are some good “non” exles? KM is: A management philosophy that takes systematic and explicit advantage of knowledge to make the organization act more intelligently Knowledge is used/applied for both operational and strategic purposes Ways to find, analyze, categorize critical knowledge areas to make sure appropriate knowledge is available when and where needed KM is NOT…. KM is NOT power, it is how you use it that matters! KM is not archiving all existing explicit knowledge A set of isolated techniques without a common framework a different label for IT, HR or training A command and control system for knowledge Some exles Here are some exles of concepts analyzed by previous classes Today – we will divide into smaller groups and try out the concept analysis technique The concept “digital library” Synonyms, antonyms (not just a website, nor a webcast, nor a database, nor a…) Perspective of: An organization that provides resources – – people A collection of digital objects – – content A technology – – container Information-seeking different? (location-independent) Subset of a traditional library? (electronic extension of a library) The concept “being green” Exles Recycling Composting Carpooling Bicycles Carpooling Conservation of resources Pollution control Political action Decrease carbon footprint Negative Exles Companies claiming to be green fraudulently waste Excessive consumption Short-term oriented Exles Awareness Regulations Acting locally Using alternative energy sources Sustainable transportation Develop green technologies Kyoto protocol Recycle reduce reuse slogan Negative Exles Ethanol gas Paperless offices Promotion caign Getting mileage out of claiming to be green Plastic bags Laissez-faire attitude Carbon tax credits Carbon offsets SUVs One-time use only Climate change Greenhouse effect Attributes Reduce the use of non-renewable resources A lifestyle or state of mind that involves making a choice to act towards sustainability Local vs. global and individual vs. group Communal resources and consumption Attitude of an individual, organization or community that is conscientious of the environment and dictates their choices and actions Way of thinking about waste reduction, awareness of consumption at the individual, corporate and community level – scalable anywhere in between Collaboration Social phenomenon Social and political components CH 2 – The Knowledge Management Cycle Major KM Cycles Knowledge-Information Cycle (ACIIC Knowledge Economy) Meyer and Zack KM Cycle Bukowitz and Wiliams KM Cycle Processes Knowledge Capture Knowledge Creation Knowledge Codification Knowledge Sharing McElroy KM Cycle Wiig KM Cycle Knowledge Access Knowledge Application Knowledge Re-Use Knowledge-Information Cycle* The ability to manage knowledge is becoming ever more crucial in the knowledge economy Where creation and diffusion of knowledge are increasingly important factors in competitiveness Knowledge is a commodity now Embedded in products, especially hi-tech products Embedded in the tacit knowledge of highly mobile employees Knowledge Economy #038; the Knowledge- Information Cycle Some paradoxes of knowledge: Using knowledge does not consume it Transferring knowledge does not lose it Knowledge is abundant, but the ability to use it is scarce Producing knowledge resists organization Much of knowledge walks out the door at the end of the day Knowledge -Information Cycle/2 Need to systematically identify, generate, acquire, diffuse, and capture the benefits of knowledge that provide a strategic advantage Clear distinction must be made between information – which is digitizable, and knowledge – which exists only in intelligent systems Knowledge-information cycle looks at how information is transformed into knowledge and vice versa via creation and application processes Knowledge-Information Cycle/3 Knowledge-Information Cycle Processes Establish appropriate information management systems and processes Identify and locate knowledge and knowledge sources within the organization Code knowledge (translate knowledge into explicit information) to allow re-use economies to operate Create networks, practices, and incentives to facilitate person-to-person knowledge transfer where the focus is on the unique solution Add personal knowledge management to the organizational repertoire (“corporate memory”) Zack KM Cycle Zack KM Cycle/2 Zack KM Cycle/3 The Meyers Zack model is an information-processing model Adapted to knowledge content Refinement step is a crucial one McElroy KM Cycle McElroy KM Cycle/2 McElroy KM Cycle/3 Organizational knowledge is held collectively in both individuals and groups Knowledge use either meets or fails to meet business expectations Matches lead to reuse Also – the notion of renewal Based on notion of an information asset Mis-matches lead to adjustments in business processing behaviour (learning) Clear step where knowledge is evaluated and a conscious decision is made as to whether or not it should be incorporated into organizational memory Bukowitz and Williams Bukowitz and Williams /2 Get: seeking out information Tacit and explicit Being selective when faced with information overload Use: combine content in new and interesting ways to foster innovation in the organization Learn: learning from experiences Creation of an organizational memory Bukowitz and Williams/3 Contribute: motivate employees to post what they have learned to a knowledge base Link individual learning and knowledge to organizational memory Assess: evaluation of intellectual capital Identify assets, metrics to assess them and link these directly to business objectives Bukowitz and Williams/4 Build and Sustain: allocate resources to maintain knowledge base Contribute to viability, competitiveness Divest: should not keep assets that are no longer of any business value Transfer outside the organization e.g. outsourcing Patent, spin off companies etc. KM Cycle Processes Knowledge Capture Knowledge Creation #038; Contribution Selectively filter contributions Knowledge Codification #038; Refinement Wiig KM Cycle Processes by which we build and use knowledge As individuals As teams (communities) As organizations How we: Build knowledge Hold knowledge Pool knowledge Apply knowledge Discrete tasks yet often interdependent #038; parallel Wiig KM Cycle/2 Building Knowledge Learning from all kinds of sources to: Wiig KM Cycle/3 Knowledge Sharing Knowledge Access Knowledge Learning #038;Application Knowledge Evaluation #038; Re-Use OR Divest Obtain Knowledge Analyze Knowledge Reconstruct (Synthesize) Knowledge Codify and Model Knowledge Organize Knowledge Obtaining Knowledge Create new knowledge Research and development projects Innovations, experimentation, trial and error Reasoning with existing knowledge Hire new people Import knowledge from existing sources Elicit knowledge from experts Acquire from manuals, books, other documents Transfer people between departments Observe the real world Analyzing Knowledge Extract what appears to be knowledge from obtained materials Analyze transcripts, reports about new concepts Listen to explanation and select key concepts Abstract extracted material Identify patterns to describe, estimate Create explicit relations between knowledge elements (e.g. causal, correlation, contribution nets) Verify that extracted content is correct through observation Reconstruct (Synthesize) Knowledge Generalize analyzed materials to obtain broader principles Generate hypotheses to explain observed behaviour in terms of causal factors Establish conformance between new and existing knowledge (validity, coherence) Update total knowledge pool by incorporating new knowledge Discard old, false, outdated, no longer relevant knowledge Codify and Model Knowledge Represent knowledge in our minds by building mental models Model knowledge by assembling declarations and relational statements into a coherent whole Document knowledge in books and manuals Encode knowledge into knowledge bases (computerized KBS tools) Organize Knowledge Organize new knowledge for specific uses E.g. sequence for diagnostics, help desk, FAQs Organize new knowledge according to an established framework Categorize according to organizational standards Taxonomy, ontology, official list of key words, attributes, linguistic/translation guidelines…. Building Knowledge – Exles Market research Focus groups Surveys Competitive intelligence Data mining on customer preferences Synthesis of lessons learned (what worked, what didn’t) – generate hypotheses Validate using customer satisfaction questionnaire and interviews Document as training manual for marketing to this specific target market Wiig KM Cycle/4 Holding Knowledge In people’s minds, books, computerized knowledge bases, etc. Remember knowledge – internalize it Cumulate knowledge in repositories (encode it) Embed knowledge in repositories (within procedures) Archive knowledge Create scientific library, subscriptions Retire older knowledge from active status in repository (e.g. store in another medium for potential future retrieval – cd roms, etc.) Holding Knowledge – Exles Company owns a number of proprietary methods and recipes for making products Some knowledge documented in the form of research reports, technical papers, patents Other tacit knowledge can be elicited and embedded in the knowledge base in the form of know-how, tips, tricks of the trade Videotapes of specialized experts explaining various procedures Task support systems Wiig KM Cycle/5 Pooling Knowledge Can take many forms such as discussions, expert networks and formal work teams Pooling knowledge consists of: Coordinating knowledge of collaborative teams Creating expert networks to identify who knows what Assembling knowledge – background references from libraries and other knowledge sources Accessing and retrieving knowledge Consult with knowledgeable people about a difficult problem, peer reviews, second opinions Obtain knowledge directly from a repository – advice, explanations Pooling Knowledge – Exles An employee realizes he or she does not have the necessary knowledge and know-how to solve a particular problem She contact others in the company who have had similar problems to solve, consults the knowledge repository and makes use of an expert advisory system to help her out She organizes all this information and has subject matter experts validate the content Wiig KM Cycle/6 Using Knowledge Use established knowledge to perform routine tasks, make standard products, provide standard services Use general knowledge to survey exceptional situations, identify problem, consequences Use knowledge to describe situation and scope problem Select relevant special knowledge to handle situation, identify knowledge sources Observe and characterize the situation, collect and organize information Analyze situation, determine patterns, compare with others, judge what needs to be done Synthesize alternative solutions, identify options, create new solutions Evaluate potential alternatives, appraise advantages and disadvantages of each, determine risks and benefits of each Use knowledge to decide what to do, which alternative to select Rank alternatives #038; test that each is feasible, acceptable Implement selected alternative Choose and assemble tools needed Prepare implementation plan, distribute it, authorize team to proceed with this solution Using Knowledge – Exles Expert mechanic encounters a new problem Gathers info to diagnose and analyze Synthesizes a list of possible solutions with the tools he knows are available to him Decides on the best option and uses it to fix the part Non-routine tasks are approached in a different way than familiar, standard ones KM Cycle Processes Knowledge Capture Knowledge Creation #038; Contribution Knowledge Codification #038; Refinement (inc. Sanitize) #038; Reconstruction (e.g. synthesis) Selectively filter contributions Knowledge Modeling Five Critical Knowledge Functions for each KM Cycle Step Type of knowledge or skill involved Securities trading expertise Business use of that knowledge Increase the value of a retirement fund portfolio Constraint that prevents knowledge from being fully utilized Expert will retire at the end of the year with no successor Knowledge Sharing #038; Pooling Knowledge Organization #038;Access Knowledge Learning #038;Application Knowledge Evaluation #038; Re-Use OR Divest Opportunities, alternatives to manage that knowledge Elicit and codify knowledge before person retires Expected value-added of improving the situation Valuable knowledge is not lost to organization CH 3 – Selected Knowledge Management Models KM Models Choo, Weick Nonaka and Takeuchi K. Wiig Boisot Beer and Bennet #038; Bennet EFQM – European Foundation for Quality Model Inukshuk Model Choo and Weick KM Model nd Knowing Organization Framework (Choo, C.W. 1998) – 2 edition 2006 Model of KM that stresses sense making, knowledge creation and decision making How to select information elements that could feed into the organizational actions Organizational action results from the concentration and absorption of information from the external environment into each successive circle. Each circle has an outside stimulus or trigger Choo’s KM Model Choo’s KM Model/2 1. Meaning is socially constructed as information is filtered through the sense making behaviour 2. Individuals create new knowledge about the external world through the transformation of their individual knowledge into shareable knowledge and information 3. A threshold is reached at some specific point when the organization as a whole is prepared to act in a rational manner and choose an alternative based upon the organizations goals, objectives #038; strategy 4. Start the next cycle when the action chosen changes the external environment and impacts ongoing decisions related to the original choice Sense Making Attempts to make sense of the information streaming in from the external environment Priorities are identified and used to filter the information Common interpretation is constructed by individuals from the exchange and negotiation of information fragments combined with their previous experiences Karl Weick: theory of sense making to describe how chaos is transformed into sensible and orderly processes in an organization through the shared interpretation of individuals Loosely coupled systems where individuals construct their own representation of reality Compare current with past events Weick Theory of Sense Making Sense making process in an organization consists of four tightly integrated processes: Ecological change Enactment Selection Retention Ecological Change A change in the environment external to the organization disturbs the flow of information to the participants This triggers an ecological change in the organization Organizational actors enact their environment by attempting to closely examine elements of the environment Enactment People try to: Construct Rearrange Single out Demolish Many of the objective features of their surroundings, make it less random, more orderly, by literally creating their own constraints or rules This clarifies the data #038; issues to be used for the selection process Selection #038; Retention Individuals attempt to interpret the rationale for the observed and enacted changes by making selections The retention process furnishes the organization with an organizational memory of successful sense making experiences Can be reused in the future to interpret new changes #038; stabilize individual interpretations into an organizational view of events and actions Reduces uncertainty and ambiguity associated with unclear, poorly defined info Knowledge Creating Transformation of personal knowledge between individuals Dialogue Discourse Sharing Storytelling Knowledge Creating (con’t) Directed by a knowledge vision of AS IS (current) and TO BE (future) Widens the spectrum of potential choices in decision making through new knowledge and new competences The result feeds the decision making process with innovative strategies that extend the organization’s capability to make informed, rational decisions Choo draws upon the Nonaka #038; Takeuchi model for a theory of knowledge creation Decision Making Rational decision making models used to identify and evaluate alternatives by processing the information and knowledge collected to date Variety of decision making theories Theory of games and economic behaviour Chaos theory, complexity theory, emergent theory Bounded rationality theory Garbage can theory Bounded Rationality Theory First proposed by H. Simon a limited or constrained rationality: The capacity of the human mind for formulating and solving complex problems is very small compared with the size of the problems whose solution is required for objectively rational behaviour in the real world – – or even for a reasonable approximation to such objective rationality (Simon, H.A 1957, p. 198) Bounded Rationality Theory/2 When confronted with a highly complex world, the mind constructs a simple mental model of reality and tries to work within that model Even though the model may have weaknesses, the individual tries to behave rationally within it Individuals can be bound in a decisional process by: Limited in intelligence, skills, habits and responsiveness Availability of personal information and knowledge Values and norms which may be different from the org. This theory has long been accepted in organizational and management sciences Characterized by individuals’ uses of: Limited information analysis, evaluation, and processing Shortcuts and rules of thumb (heuristics) “Satisficing” (good enough, 80/20 rule, not necessarily optimization) The Nonaka-Takeuchi Model of Knowledge Management “In an economy where the only certainty is uncertainty, the one sure source of lasting competitive advantage is knowledge.” I. Nonaka The problem is that few managers understand how to manage the knowledge-creating company Focus on ‘hard’ or quantifiable knowledge See KM as information processing machine Nonaka #038; Takeuchi/2 The authors studied successful Japanese companies to try to identify how they achieved creativity and innovation Found it was more than mechanistically processing objective information Depending on highly subjective insights Slogans, metaphors, symbols Holistic model of knowledge creation and management of “serendipity” Nonaka #038; Takeuchi: The Spiral of Knowledge Knowledge creation always begins with the individual Brilliant researcher has an insight that leads to a new patent Middle manager has intuition of market trends and becomes the catalyst for an important new product concept Shop floor worker draws on years of experience to come up with a process innovation that saves $$$$ In each case, an individual’s personal knowledge is translated into valuable organizational knowledge The Basis for the Nonaka – Takeuchi Model Making personal knowledge available to others in the company is at the core of this model of KM It takes place continuously It takes place at all levels of the organization Individual Groups Company-wide Can be unexpected E.g. home bread-making machine innovation Explicit vs. Tacit Knowledge Nonaka #038; Takeuchi – the Knowledge Spiral Model Nonaka and Takeuchi Model Tacit to Tacit Transformation Individual to individual(s) Apprenticeship Mentoring Observation Shadowing Imitation Practice Brainstorming Coaching Tacit to Explicit Transformation Able to articulate the knowledge, know-how Can be written, videotape, audiotape format Often need intermediary to capture this knowledge – a journalist, a workshop… It now exists in a tangible form It can now be more easily shared with others and leveraged throughout the organization Explicit to Explicit Transformation Can combine discrete pieces of tangible knowledge into a new form E.g. a synthesis in the form of a report, a comparative evaluation, a new database Simply a new combination of existing knowledge – no new knowledge is created Explicit to Tacit Transformation As new knowledge is shared throughout the organization, employees now begin to internalize it They use it, broaden it, extend it and reframe their own existing tacit knowledge base They learn – they do their jobs differently now The KM Spiral First we learn something through socialization (e.g. being apprenticed to a master) Next we translate this into a tangible format that can be more easily communicated to others (externalization) This knowledge is then standardized using templates, coding rules etc (new combination) Finally, team members enrich their own tacit knowledge bases by adding new knowledge and skills (internalization) They then share this new knowledge tacitly (back to socialization and the spiral continues) From Metaphor to Model Externalization (tacit to explicit) and Internalization (explicit to tacit) both require a high degree of personal commitment Involves Mental models Personal beliefs and values Re-inventing yourself as well as the organization Metaphor is a good way of expressing the “inexpressible” Slogans, symbols Fables, stories, allegories analogies Models – final step, no contradictions, consistent, systematic, logical “two ideas in a single phrase” From Chaos to Concept How to structure metaphors, models and analogies in an organizational KM design st 1 principle: Built-in redundancy – make sure there is shared overlapping information Easier to articulate Easier to share Easier to internalize Can be done with internal competing groups, built-in rotational strategy and free access to company information via single integrated database or k-base Need to orient ensuring chaos created by the inevitable discrepancies in meaning that occur Provide a conceptual framework that helps them make sense of their experiences Conceptual umbrella for key concepts Domain ontology – categorization of the organization’s knowledge base Standards set by the company re. strategic value of knowledge Recommended Solutions K. Wiig KM Model For knowledge to be useful and organized it must be organized Organize knowledge differently depending on what knowledge will be used for In our minds, we store knowledge as a semantic network with multiple links We choose the appropriate perspective depending on the cognitive task at hand Semantic Network Exle: Four Perspectives on a Car Maintain Driving K. Wiig KM Model/2 Commute Vacation Organize knowledge so that it can be accessed and retrieved using multiple paths Useful dimensions to consider: Completeness Connectedness Congruency Perspective and purpose Completeness How much of the relevant knowledge is available from this source? Human mind Knowledge base We need to know that it is there May be complete in the sense that all that is available about the subject is there but no one knows it is there #038; therefore cannot make use of it Connectedness There are well-understood and defined relations between the different knowledge sections There are very few knowledge items that are totally disconnected from the others The more connected the knowledge base, the greater its value Congruency A knowledge base is congruent when all facts, concepts, perspectives, values, judgments and associative and relational links between the mental objects are consistent There are no logical inconsistencies, no internal conflicts, no misunderstandings Consistency in concept definitions Needs to be constantly ‘fine-tuned’ Perspective and Purpose When we ‘know’ something, we often know it from a particular perspective or for a specific use in mind We organize much of our knowledge using perspective and purpose Just-in-time knowledge retrieval Just-enough – on-demand basis Degrees of Internalization 1. NOVICE: Ignorant or barely aware: Not aware of what the know or how it an be used 2. BEGINNER: Know that the knowledge exists: Aware of where the knowledge is and where to get it but cannot reason with it 3. COMPETENT: Knows about the knowledge: Can use and reason with the knowledge, given external knowledge bases such as books, people to help 4. EXPERT: Knows the knowledge:Holds the knowledge in memory, understands where it applies, reasons with it without outside help 5. MASTER: Internalizes knowledge fully: Has deep understanding with full integration into values, judgments, #038; consequences of using that knowledge Hierarchy of Knowledge Three Forms of Knowledge Public Knowledge Explicit, taught and shared routinely, generally available in the public domain Shared Expertise Proprietary knowledge assets exclusively held by knowledge workers and shared in their work or embedded in technology, often communicated by specialized languages #038; representations. Personal Knowledge Least accessible but most complete, tacit knowledge in people’s minds, used non-consciously in work, play and daily life. Four Types of Knowledge Factual Facts, data, causal chains Conceptual Perspectives, concepts, gestalt e.g. social constructivist view of learning Expectational Judgments, hypotheses, predictions Methodological Reasoning, strategies, methods, techniques Wiig’s KM Matrix Boisot KM Model The more easily data can be structured and converted into information, the more diffusible it becomes The less data that has been so structured requires a shared context for its diffusion, the more diffusible it becomes Complex Adaptive System KM Models Key processes include: Understanding Creating new ideas Solving problems Making decisions Taking actions to achieve desired results Based on 8 emergent properties: 1. Organizational intelligence 2. Shared purpose 3. Selectivity 4. Optimum complexity 5. 6. 7. 8. EFQM overview How can KM be used to achieve organizational goals? KM is positioned as an organizational enabler KM is used to achieve organizational goals and not KM-oriented goals Never a good idea to do KM for KM’s sake! EFQM components Permeable boundaries Knowledge centricity Flow Multidimensionality Inukshuk model Developed to help Canadian government departments manage their knowledge better An Inukshuk is used to mark paths by First National people Derived from quantitative research and a review of existing models Uses the SECI (Nonaka and Takeuchi) model for the process piece and emphasizes the role played by people Inukshuk components Recap: Knowledge Management Models Choo, Weick – – sensemaking of external, knowledge creation, decision making Nonaka and Takeuchi – – internal knowledge spiral – knowledge transformations Wiig – knowledge organized as a semantic network for multiple perspectives – typology Boisot – – degree of abstractness of knowledge, extent to which knowledge has been/can be diffused Beer and Bennet #038; Bennet – – organization as a viable system, organizational intelligence, extent to which organization is permeable to knowledge flows Inukshuk model: CH 4 – Knowledge Capture and Codification OVERVIEW : Knowledge Capture For tacit knowledge KM Cycle Step 1:Knowledge Capture and Codification Tacit Knowledge Capture #038; Codification Ad Hoc Sessions, Roadmaps, Learning History Action Learning, Knowledge Codification For explicit knowledge Organizing knowledge in a knowledge taxonomy Storytelling Learn from Others, Guest Speakers, Best Practice Capture Interviewing to elicit tacit knowledge Approaches to Knowledge Capture and Codification How to describe and represent knowledge Depending on the type of knowledge E.g. explicit knowledge is already well described but may need to abstract/summarize it Tacit knowledge on the other hand may require significant analysis and organization before it can be suitably described and represented Tools range from linguistic descriptions and categories to mathematical formulations and graphical representations Tacit Knowledge Capture Techniques Tacit Knowledge Capture Ad Hoc Sessions, Roadmap, Learning History, Storytelling, Interviews, Action Learning, Learn from Others, Guest Speakers, Relationship Building, Systems Thinking Tacit Knowledge Codification Proficiency Levels and Knowledge Profiles Abstract Concept Representation (mental models) Concept hierarchies (associative or semantic networks) Learning History Useful to capture tacit knowledge A retrospective history of significant events in an organization’s recent past, described in the voices of people who took part in them Researched through a series of reflective interviews, transcribed in Q#038;A format Systematic review of successes and failures Learning History Questions What was your role in the project/initiative? How would you judge its success? What would you do differently if you could? What recommendations do you have for other people who might go through a similar process? What innovative things were done or could have been done? Learning History Documentation Record and transcribe interviews Analyze data to identify like themes and sub-themes as well as quotes to be used Document key themes and validate quotes (e.g. make sure they are not anonymous nor taken out of context) Summarize and publish Learning History Template Storytelling An organizational story is a detailed narrative of management actions, employee interactions and other intra-organizational events that are communicated informally within the organization Conveying information in a story provides a rich context, remaining in the conscious memory longer and creating more memory traces than information not in context Can increase organizational learning, communicate common values and rule sets What’s the Moral of the Story? Fables are short fictional folk tales used to indirectly tell truths about life They have a level of meaning beyond the surface story They are an excellent exle of what organizational stories should be like – except they would tell truths about life working in company X… Some exles: The Chicken and the Jewel A chicken, scratching for food for herself and her chicks, found a precious stone and exclaimed, “If your owner had found you and not I, he would have taken you up and put you in your first jewelry. But I have found you for no purpose. I would rather have one kernel of corn rather than all the jewels in the world.” The Crow and the Pitcher A crow, perishing with thirst, saw a pitcher, and hoping to find water, he flew to it with delight. When he reached it, he discovered to his grief that it contained so little water he could not possibly get at it. He tried everything he could think of to get to the water, but all his efforts were in vain. At last, he collected as many stones as he could carry and dropped them one by one into the pitcher, until the brought the water within his reach and saved his life. The Donkey and His Shadow A traveler hired a donkey to convey him to a distant place. The day being intensely hot, and the sun shining in its strength, the traveler stopped to rest, and sought shelter from the heat under the shadow of the donkey. As this afforded protection for one, and as the traveler and the owner of the donkey both claimed it, a violent dispute arose between them as to which of them had the right to the shadow. The owner maintained that he had let the donkey only, not his shadow. The traveler asserted that he had, with the hire of the donkey, hired his shadow also. The quarrel proceeded from words to blows, and while the men fought, the donkey galloped off. The Man #038; His 2 Sweethearts A middle-aged man, whose hair had begun to turn gray, courted two women at the same time. One of them was young, and the other well advanced in years. The elder woman, ashamed to be courted by a man younger than herself, made a point, whenever her admirer visited her, to pull out some portion of his black hairs. The younger, on the contrary, not wishing to become the wife of an old man, was equally zealous in removing every gray hair she could find. Thus it came to pass that between them both he very soon found that he had not a hair left on his head. The Farmer #038; the Stork A farmer placed nets on his newly-sown land and caught a number of cranes, which came to pick up his seed. With them he trapped a stork that had fractured his leg in the net and was earnestly beseeching the farmer to spare his life. “I am no crane but a stork, a bird of excellent character – look at my feathers – they are not the least like those of a crane!” The farmer laughed aloud and said, “It may be all you say, I only know this: I have taken you with these robbers, the cranes, and you must die in their company.” The Oak #038; the Reeds A very large oak was uprooted by the wind and thrown across a stream. It fell among some reeds, which it thus addressed: “I wonder how you, who are so light and weak, are not entirely crushed by these strong winds.” They replied, “ You fight and contend with the wind, and consequently, you are destroyed; while we on the contrary bend before the least breath of air, and therefore remain unbroken and escape.” The Hawk, the Falcon and the Pigeons The pigeons, terrified by the appearance of a falcon, called upon the hawk to defend them. He at once consented. When they had admitted him into their shelter, they found that he made more havoc and slew a larger number of them in one day than the falcon could pounce upon in one whole year. The Fox and the Goat One day, a fox fell into a deep well and could find no means of escape. A goat, overcome with thirst, came to the same well and seeing the fox, inquired if the water was good. The fox lavishly praised the water as excellent beyond measure and encouraged the goat to descend. Thinking only of his thirst the goat jumped in. The fox then informed him of the difficulty they were both in and suggested they could escape if he ran up the goat’s back to escape and then help the goat out afterwards. The goat agreed. The fox got out and ran off as fast as he could, leaving the goat behind in the well. Best Practice Capture Best practices and lessons learned can be said to be two different sides of the same coin: BPs look at successes and LLs look at failures They are both described in the same manner using metadata such as: Date prepared Point of contact : Name, organization, contact information Members who participated in the development of the best practice Problem statement Background (Note any research that was conducted, summary of significant findings, root cause identification) Best Practice Description (Models, business rules, use graphics whenever possible) Lessons Learned #038; Best Practices Capture CIDA: Exle of a Best Practice in Forestry Best Practice: Bolivia: Emerging best practices for combating illegal activities in the forest sector B2: Simplifying norms and reducing their number The Bolivian government in reforming its timber concession policies decreed that the concession fee would be $ 1 per hectare per year. This contrasted sharply with previous complex norms that mandated timber concession fees based on species types, volumes and quality of timber, which left much room to interpretation, misclassification and disguised measurement errors. The new rule is singular, simple and clear: a concession covering 100,000 hectares must pay $ 100,000 in concession fees per year. There is no room for interpretation or modification based on doubtful criteria. Monitoring compliance and prosecution is extremely easy, as the evidence is transparent. While the economic soundness of charging a uniform fee for timber concessions of differing commercial value is questionable, the new norm has the undeniable advantage of diminishing the incidence of corruption or arbitrariness in determining concession fees CIDA: Exle of KM Lessons Learned Knowledge taxonomies Concepts are the building blocks of knowledge and expertise. Once key concepts have been identified and captured, they can be arranged in a hierarchy – a knowledge taxonomy graphically represent knowledge in a way that reflects the logical organization of concepts within a particular field of expertise or for the organization at large A taxonomy is a classification scheme that groups related items together names the types of relationships concepts have to one another Is developed through a consensus of key stakeholders Is often multifaceted to represent the complexity of organizational knowledge Exle – Facets Tacit Knowledge Capture Activity Form pairs Take on role of knowledge journalist or subject matter expert and then switch Topic suggestions: How did you decide on what to do for your undergraduate degree? Whose advice did you seek? How would you advise someone to make this decision? Write down 3-4 key interview questions you used Try to identify at least one best practice or lessons learned from the experience using the BP/LL template handout Interviews With subject matter experts, stakeholders, process performers, customers – anybody that can shed new light on a topic or issue Used to gather knowledge for the community and its knowledge base Interview Plan Initial contact (phone, email, face-to-face) Explanation of interview purpose, format, duration, confidentiality of information Establishing credibility and rapport Ice-breaking Professionalism (boundaries) Types of Interview Questions Closed questions Can be answered with a yes or no Used to validate (sometimes to “provoke” a reaction) Open questions Require explanations as answers Used to elicit knowledge CH 5 – Knowledge Sharing and Communities of Practice What is a Community of Practice (CoP)? n Traditionally, we have shared knowledge through ‘word of mouth’ (e.g. master to apprentice) n While socializing comes ‘naturally’ to us, there are fewer opportunities in today’s much larger, much more global companies But: In Today’s Working Environment What is a Community of Practice (CoP)? Definition of “Community” “A group of people having common interests: the scientific community, the international business community” Similarity or identity: a community of interests Sharing, participation, fellowship “The body of people in a learned occupation: “the news spread rapidly through the medical community” Common interests Agreement as to goals th The word has been in the English language since the 14 century Comes from the Latin “The quality of holding something in common” A sense of common identity and characteristics More direct, more immediate and more significant relationships than in formal organized societies Sharing of common goals, values, identities; participatory decision-making What is a virtual community? What is a Practice? What is a Community of Practice in the KM World? “Ground Truth” “A group of individuals informally bound together by shared expertise and passion for a joint enterprise” (Snyder and Wenger) Peers in the execution of real work. What holds them together is a common sense of purpose and a real need to know what each other knows” (John Seely Brown) “Focused on the more professional nature of work. It’s trying to find a better way of doing work” (From the field….) Putting the pieces together tacit vs. explicit The term “community” suggests that CoPs are not constrained by typical geographic, business unit or functional boundaries but rather by common tasks, contexts and interests. The word “practice” implies knowledge in action – how individuals actually perform their jobs on a day-to-day basis as opposed to more formal policies and procedures that reflect how work should be performed. Community of Practice A group of people n informally bound together n by shared expertise n and passion for a joint enterprise Dimensions of Practice as the property of a community How are Communities of Practice Different? Community of Practice Work Group Project Team Informal networks Purpose Exchange knowledge Membership Self select Deliver product Accomplish specific task All under manager Assigned or selected Pass on business information Friends #038; business acquaintances Glue Passion, identification with group Job #038; common goal Project milestones and goal Mutual need Duration As long as the interest lasts Until restructured Project completed As long as reason exists A Community of Practice Multiple Communities The Value Added by Communities of Practice The help drive strategy They start new lines of business They solve problems quickly Benefits of Communities of Practice For the organization Help drive strategy Solve problems quickly Diffuse best practices They transfer best practices They develop professional skills They help companies recruit and retain talent Cross-fertilize ideas, increase opportunities for innovation Build organizational memory CoP Benefits (continued) For the community Develop professional skills – Develop a common language – Improve continuously – LEARN • For the individual • Help people do their jobs #038; save time • Building a sense of community bonds within organization • Helps people to keep up to date • Provides challenges and opportunities to contribute Why are CoPs important now? Knowledge increasingly recognized as a strategic intellectual asset Cannot be left to chance – need to actively, systematically organize, and disseminate knowledge CoPs are a good way of doing this CoPs need librarians, archivists, taxonomists….”knowledge stewards” A Paradox of Management Although communities of practice are fundamentally informal and self-organizing, they benefit from cultivation. How to cultivate them: identify potential communities of practice that will enhance the company’s strategic capabilities provide the infrastructure that will support them and enable them to apply their expertise effectively use nontraditional methods to assess their value Community Building Blocks Collective identity – Community type – Community roles and responsibilities – Community membership – Collaborative work environment Community Types Helping Communities Provide a forum for community members to help each other solve everyday work problems Best Practice Communities Develop and disseminate best practices, guidelines and procedures for members’ use Knowledge Stewarding Communities Organize, manage, and steward a body of knowledge from which members can draw Innovation Communities Create breakthrough ideas, knowledge #038; practices Community Roles and Responsibilities Functional sponsor Believes in and promotes the value of knowledge sharing and community membership Core team – Community Leader – Community Facilitator – Logistics Coordinator Community Core Team Use their knowledge of the discipline to judge what is important, groundbreaking and useful Enrich information by summarizing, combining, contrasting and integrating information into the knowledgebase Establish a taxonomy for the knowledgebase How Knowledge Workers Spend their Time How do we find information online? Directories of Experts Research shows that even in companies with well-developed KM infrastructures, people still turn first to other people as they seek solutions to problems and knowledge Knowledge flows are primarily through people What knowledge flows? Direct answer to question Metaknowledge Help in reformulating the problem….. Skill Mining Similar to data mining Purpose is to identify who within an enterprise has the expertise required to help a knowledge worker with a specific issue Manual – Knowledge Support Offices Automated – Abuzz, Autonomy, Dataware Tends to be better suited to ‘hard’ or technical skills Yellow Pages – Expert Network Exle Yellow Pages Activity FOR INSTRUCTORS: you can develop a list of about 20 items such as: “knows how to fix a lawnmower”, “can name 3 types of potatoes”, “has run a marathon.” Draw a line next to each item. Ask students to find someone in the class who has this type of “expertise”. This is a method of developing yellow pages. Social Network Analysis (SNA) SNA is a diagnostic method for collecting and analyzing data about patterns of relationships among people in groups Can identify patterns of interaction such as average number of links between people in an organization or community, the number of subgroups, information bottlenecks, knowledge brokers Can help to improve knowledge flow, identify key brokers and hoarders E.g. 6 degrees of separation Exle: if your goal is to build a more cohesive knowledge network so people can access and interact with one another more quickly, more easily: How well do you know and understand the skills and experiences of other members? Is the type of knowledge held by this other person important to the work that you do? Do you find it easy to access other people when you need help? Knowledge Flow Analysis Exle: Finding Hidden Experts Rosa and Thomas are `hidden` experts Orphaned database 40 SNA (continued) Based on the results of the analysis, you may decide to: Reorganize Introduce new specific roles e.g. moderator to assist in knowledge transfer Technologies to support expertise location, virtual meetings, as well as face-to-face meetings Introduce a shared goal they can work towards or theme of interest for discussion Self-awareness may be enough (“yikes – I am a knowledge black hole!) Mapping the Flow of Knowledge Sociogram Exle Draw a sociogram of a community you belong to: Family Friends Peers – e.g. have you exchanged knowledge with anyone in this class? How? (email, conversation, phone) for what purpose? (assignment) with anyone outside the class on the topic of CoPs/KM? Who? Hobby groups Interest groups CH 6 – Knowledge Acquisition and Application What does “personalization” mean?? Opposite of personalization = generic one-size fits all mass communications Beyond (“trivial”) customization segmentation manual adjustments e.g. desktop use of personal names instead of ‘addressee’ Personalization and Profiling new technologies of internet, intranet, extranet, groupware, CBT and so on greatly facilitate the capture of user profiles – their actions leave behind digital artifacts or footprints it is thus easier to observe what they do and – track, scan, model “push technologies” – e.g. personalized email alerts based on your interests Keeping Track in the Networked World: Footprints and Breadcrumbs ALL online transactions – and actions – leave behind digital traces (footprints) which we can see, collect, analyze and act on ATM banking transactions Web browsing Communicating with wireline and wireless telephones…. We leave breadcrumbs so we can find out way back to places of interest (e.g. bookmarks) User Profiling Approaches Sign up or subscription – ask users Approaches based on observation and deduction Content Affinity Groups Data Mining User Modeling Real-time Usage history Model of online behaviour Affinity Groups Group together based on characteristics of content (e.g. document mapping based on key words) ….OR: Affinity groups: group together based on similarities between users accessing that content e.g. Amazon.com OnLine Behaviour In a store (such as a supermarket) studies show that 90% of people turn right instead of going straight or left What is the equivalent behaviour(s) in cyberspace? Similar to GPS systems that show where you have been, in what sequence, how often, how long you stayed Group profiling methods Segmentation Categorize users based on easily obtained information A good compromise between individual personalization and mass customization Default profiles can be used as a starting point and later, personalization used to refine these profiles further E.g. demographic profiling E.g. Cognitive styles and MBTI Demographic profiling Based on where you live – your postal code Derive segments Develop a profile You have a lot in common with your neighbours! Ex : Polk Data, CompuSearch Integrate other data e.g. Statistics Canada Do you provide your postal code at the checkout counter??? Cognitive Styles and MBTI Cognitive differences We all have preferred habits of thought that influence how we make decisions, how we interact with others and how we prefer to learn These are neither good nor bad They emerge early in our lives and tend to remain fairly stable through the years People tend to choose professions that reward or correspond to their preferred cognitive styles Myers-Briggs Type Indicator is an exle of a widely used tool to assess cognitive styles Managing Diversity Generally, managers have two responses: Comfortable clone syndrome – hire, work with, talk to people like themselves Creative abrasion – value a variety of thinking styles and deliberately designs a full spectrum of approaches into the organization and work teams Understand yourself Create whole-brained teams Some Issues Privacy Amount of elapsed time, number of actions before stable pattern is established Level of detail required (cost-effectiveness) How much personalization? One way if to look at a hierarchy of learning objectives (Bloom) Bloom’s Hierarchy of Learning Objectives Conceptual systems theory that describes progressively complex levels of learning achievement – as evidenced by learner behaviours Prerequisite structure Need to master lower level before moving up to the next level E.g. your course objectives Good model for knowledge acquisition Bloom: Cognitive Learning Objectives (continued) Exle: Course Objectives 1. Use a framework and a clear language for intellectual capital and organizational memory concepts 2. Model the flow, sharing and leveraging of intellectual assets 3. Identify some of the principal cultural characteristics that are necessary to encourage organizational learning and innovation 4. Describe the links between individual and organizational learning 5. Monitor, value, categorize, report intellectual capital Learning Organizations “places where people continually expand their capacity to create the results they truly desire, where new and expansive patterns of thinking are nurtured, where collective aspiration is set free, and where people are continually learning how to learn together” (P. Senge, The Fifth Discipline) What is a Learning Organization? A learning organization is an organization skilled at creating, acquiring, and transferring knowledge, and at modifying its behavior to reflect new knowledge and insights. New ideas are essential if learning is to occur Sometimes they are created from scratch (flash) At other times they come from outside the organization Triggers for organizational learning but by themselves, ideas do not bring about organizational learning: needs to be accompanied by changes in the way that work gets done – otherwise, no potential for improvement Management: Building Blocks Learning organizations are skilled at 5 main activities: 1. Systematic problem solving e.g. use scientific approach 2. Experimentation with new approaches 3. Learning from their own experience #038; past history (lessons learned, project reviews) 4. Learning from the lessons learned and best practices of others (benchmarking, networking) 5. Transferring knowledge quickly and efficiently throughout the organization (training, lunch and learns…) Steps Leading to a Learning Organization Foster an environment that is conducive to learning Time for reflection, analysis, to think about strategic plans, dissect customer needs, assess current work systems and invent new products Open up boundaries and stimulate the exchange of ideas – destroy the silos #038; ivory towers with conferences, meetings, project teams Create learning forums: programs or events designed with explicit learning goals e.g. study missions, committees, symposiums, etc. Lessons Learned and Knowledge Inventories Whenever an exceptional situation occurs – opportunities for best practices (creative innovations) and lessons learned to be drawn from them Need to be captured, described and preserved to be accessible again when needed Continued learning of employees, communities and of the organization CH 7 – The Role of Organizational Culture Cognitive Styles and MBTI Cognitive differences We all have preferred habits of thought that influence how we make decisions, how we interact with others and how we prefer to learn These are neither good nor bad They emerge early in our lives and tend to remain fairly stable through the years People tend to choose professions that reward or correspond to their preferred cognitive styles Myers-Briggs Type Indicator is an exle of a widely used tool to assess cognitive styles Your Personality Profile Why profile? How do you learn? How do you solve problems? What career are you likely to choose? How do you work in teams? How do you share knowledge? What does your social network look like? Questionnaire Self-report results (that you did online) An alternative way of determining your profile… See handout MBTI and Jungian Types Four Dimensions: Introverted vs. Extroverted – – source of energy Judging vs. Perceiving – – source of inputs Sensing vs. Intuiting – – ways of perceiving Thinking vs. Feeling – – ways of judging **gender correlation** 16 Type Profiles MBTI Type Distribution – general population Overview of lecture Feedback on MBTI (online questionnaire Alternative way of arriving at your type Explanation of the dimensions Correlation with career choice Role of organizational culture Maturity models – Case studies – Research study Knowledge Management #038; Change Delivery Imagine the following: 3 groups of 10 individuals are in a park at lunch time with a rain clouds threatening Group 1: someone gets up and says ‘get up and follow me… Group 2: someone says ‘here’s the plan – each one stands up, marches in the direction of the apple tree, maintaining a distance of 2 feet apart….’ Group 3: a few people say ‘it’s going to rain – why don’t we go over to that apple tree – we will stay dry and have fresh apples for lunch…’ Group 4: someone tells a story about the time… A Springboard Story In June 1995, a health care worker in Kamana, Zambia logged on to the Centre for Disease Control Web Site in Atlanta and found the answer to a question on how to treat malaria. This serves as an illustration of low-cost knowledge sharing across organizations, across distances and across cultural barriers. Stephen Denning used this story to catalyze senior management at the World Bank to rethink their mission – no longer just a bank but a knowledge broker. and to help them to envision – – what would it be like…..if we ignited organizational change and become a Knowledge Culture company What is culture? Corporate culture is the set of understandings (often unstated!) that members of a community share in common. These shared understandings consist of our norms, values, attitudes, beliefs and paradigms. (V. Sathe) Culture is the integrated pattern of human behaviour that includes thought, speech, action and artifacts and depends on man’s capacity for learning and transmitting knowledge to succeeding generations. (Webster’s) A pattern of basic assumptions That has worked well enough to be considered valid Is therefore taught to new members as a correct way to think, perceive and feel in relation to problems. Unspoken “rules of the game” What is done and what is NOT done How you fit in with respect to the organization KM almost always triggers organizational change Corporate culture is a key component of ensuring that critical knowledge and information flow within an organization The strength and commitment of a corporate culture is at least as important as the communication technologies implemented for knowledge sharing Traditionally, knowledge flowed or was shared vertically – needs to be horizontal as well Organization needs to recognize and reward knowledge sharing rather than knowledge hoarding behaviours Communications technology is an enabler of knowledge sharing Three Myths about KM: 1. Build it and they will come People rarely take the time to learn new tools Technology does not always give them what they want/need People often don’t know what knowledge they need 2. Technology can replace face-to-face Only if you ignore valuable tacit knowledge 3. First you have to create a learning culture It is very hard and takes a very long time to change culture – – focus on changing behaviours then culture Maturity Models Good frameworks for understanding current culture of an organization And the stages of how change is introduced Can better identify the obstacles and enablers in order for the organization to attain the next level Stages of Organization Maturity Some Minimum Requirements Some Initial Steps to Creating a Knowledge Culture Knowledge journalist to begin interviewing to document projects, best practices. Lessons learned KM Awareness Get-Togethers (e.g. informal Project Manager Breakfasts) Newsletters to publicize KM initiatives and good KM role models KM Pilot Projects leveraging ongoing efforts KSO, intranets, KBS, DMS, People or expertise finders …. Other Best Practices Encourage a knowledge-friendly culture Cannot be imposed top-down Culture evolves over a long period of time through the way in which individuals work with one another Adapt the selection criteria and standards used to evaluate performance Positive role models Create opportunities for people to get to know one another and learn from one another Focus on connecting people rather than capturing knowledge Knowledge Management #038; Change Delivery Imagine the following: 3 groups of 10 individuals are in a park at lunch time with a rain clouds threatening Group 1: someone gets up and says ‘get up and follow me… Group 2: someone says ‘here’s the plan – each one stands up, marches in the direction of the apple tree, maintaining a distance of 2 feet apart….’ Group 3: a few people say ‘it’s going to rain – why don’t we go over to that apple tree – we will stay dry and have fresh apples for lunch…’ Group 4: someone tells a story about the time… Three Myths about KM: 1. Build it and they will come People rarely take the time to learn new tools Technology does not always give them what they want/need People often don’t know what knowledge they need 2. Technology can replace face-to-face Only if you ignore valuable tacit knowledge 3. First you have to create a learning culture It is very hard and takes a very long time to change culture – – focus on changing behaviours then culture Forrester Group model APQC model H. Gruber #038; L. Duxbury In-depth study of R#038;D dept of a high tech company Looked at link between organizational culture and knowledge sharing Variables of openness, trust, top management support and the reward structure of the organization Interviewed 30 employees How is explicit knowledge shared? Database (LotusNotes) 55% Intranet 40% Face to face* 28% Shared drive 25% * where is it? How do I get it? Who should I go see? types of questions What makes it harder to share explicit knowledge? Hard to find on intranet Hard to find in databases Missing explanation for retrieval 25% Different systems – no standards 25% Information is not where it should be Tools difficult to use Difficult to access database How could you make it easier for people to share? Training for knowledge retrieval 60% Define a knowledge strategy Categorize in standard way Standardize technology Create project websites 45% 38% 25% 25% 25% 33% 33% 25% How is tacit knowledge shared? How shared? Face to face Informal personal networks What makes it harder? Attitude (knowledge is power) Don’t know who expert is 33% Don’t know if the knowledge exists 33% Lose knowledge when people leave 90% 25% 45% 25% How could you make it easier to share tacit knowledge? Recognize the value of tacit know 33% Improve relationships within org 33% Increase opportunities for people within different parts of the org to interact 33% What would your dept look like with a k-sharing culture? Communication and coordination between groups emphasized (45%) Experts would not shield knowledge (33%) Sharing of knowledge would be encouraged at all levels of the hierarchy (25%) The organization would value sharing knowledge (25%) Reward and recognition In corporate objectives Wish list? Standardize on tools Increase the number of social events Workshops for knowledge sharing with experts and other groups State knowledge sharing as an org goal Enhance trust Increase communication across projects Lessons Learned: Provide information about the skills and experience of employees to overcome problems arising from the absence of personal relationships Provide support mechanisms – feedback for effective knowledge sharing to take place Active knowledge transfer requires a bidirectional communication channel Develop common goals and mutual trust KM is an evolutionary process that must be embedded into organizational culture The introduction of new communication/information technologies that are capable of enhancing knowledge sharing can be used to initiate a knowledge culture Externalize tacit knowledge Build up a permanent organizational memory Include all members in participatory development of content, rules, goals “we have to move to a transparent organization. This means all kinds of information and knowledge is shared across the whole organization. Everyone can find out what everyone else is doing. Any kind of information that influences me and my project have to be made available to everyone else.” Conclusions Research shows that an environment that truly supports sharing of knowledge has the following characteristics: Reward structure – recognition for knowledge sharing with peers Openness/transparency – no hidden agendas Sharing supported– communication and coordination between groups Trust – shared objectives Top management support – upward #038; downward communication CH 8 – The KM Toolkit KM Tools and Techniques Knowledge mapping Community of Practice mapping Knowledge Taxonomies Knowledge Repository Design Groupware and collaboration tools Knowledge repository tools (intranet, www, portal…) EPSS (task support tools) AI-based tools (e.g. CBR) Enterprise KM Architecture Data Layer Unifying abstraction across different types of data with potentially different storage mechanisms (database, textual data, video, audio) Process Layer Describes the logic that links data with the use made by people or other systems of that data User Interface Provides access for people to the information assets of the enterprise via logic incorporated in the process layer KM Data Layer Data Sources Groupware repositories (LotusNotes) Document management Media management Intranets File servers World Wide Web…. Data Types Relational data bases – Text files – Audio/video – Web pages – Discussion/email threads… Data Formats XML – HTML – ASCII – GIF – MPEG – WAV – Proprietory… Metadata KM cannot be supported by the simple amalgamation of a mass of data Requires the structuring and navigation supported yb metadata: the formal description of data and its inter-relationships Metadata about physical structures, data types, access methods and about content Metadata in KM is used to categorize, define, and describe and falls into 2 categories: Taxonomy (knowledge maps, glossaries, thesauri..) XML standards Manual approaches complemented by automated relationship discovery Unification and access of data silos Need to locate data, access multiple types of data in multiple formats from multiple repositories Must be reliable, scalable as required with access by large numbers of users UI Layer Personalization Profiles Data about people, tasks, and preferences Unifying user interface Browser, icons, portal, application interface Viewing or representation Multidevice – Multimedia – Abstraction -Navigation Process Layer Encapsulates the application logic that delivers content from the data layer to the user via the UI layer Scripting languages e.g. VisualBasic Search engines Rule-based retrieval systems Intelligent filtering agents Physical Layer Web Browsers Hyperlink model, multimedia documents, .. Single logical content model Unifying network services Common access methods Internet standards Content/semantics (XML, WebDAV) Presentation (multimedia and multimode) Tools and Techniques for each step of the KM cycle Capture and store – Search and retrieve – Publish and disseminate – Structure and navigate – Use and apply Checklist for KM Technologies Capture and Store – – Knowledge Mapping Can define templates, Can identify authors, Can manage work steps to create, update, review and approve end products Shared capture processes (e.g. multiple authors) Can capture and group units of knowledge in a shareable repository What is a Knowledge Map? Definition Knowledge mapping creates high-level knowledge models in a transparent graphical form Knowledge mapping is the techniques and tools for visualising knowledge and relationships in a clear form such that business-relevant features are clearly highlighted Knowledge maps are created by transferring certain aspects of (tacit or explicit) knowledge into a graphical form that is easily understandable by end-users, who may be business managers, experts or technical system developers Knowledge Map Exle/1 Checklist (con’t) Search and Retrieve Search and query without familiarity with content nor location Transparent access to disparate data sources Efficient access through indices, data warehousing, data marts or document repositories Access to richer media and content such as text, video, audio and images Multiple search techniques such as simple Boolean, fuzzy, conceptual or contextual, and feature detection searches and complex natural language queries Disseminate/publish Routing and delivery of information to those who have a need and the notification of subscribers Email, workflow, push technology to notify of changes, of newly posted information, expired subscriptions and expired materials Pattern matching against user profiles (including structured or adaptive profiles) Repository Design Transport Canada Transports Canada ACTIONS Repository Administration Simple Search Rail Community of Practice What’s New TC Headquarter TC Regions Rail Industry Links Reports Members Maps Upcoming Events Safety Related News One dead, 96 hurt as Amtrak train derails in Iowa Advanced Search Latest Accident Reports New Publications Help Glossary New Members Products – Repository Design Transport Canada Transports Canada ACTIONS Repository Administration Simple Search Rail Community of Practice What’s New TC Headquarter TC Regions Rail Industry Links Reports Members Harmonization Studies (NAFTA) Trend Analysis on Safety, Efficiency Research Reports TRANSPORTATION – ENERGY AND ENVIRONMENT Advanced Maps Checklist (con’t) Structure and Navigate Provide a classification scheme for the organization’s knowledge assets – hierarchies, taxonomies, semantic nets Provide and a means to effectively navigate the structure using a visual or textual UI path; enable multiple views Index the explicit information content Build electronic linkages from classification scheme to relevant knowledge assets Identify of human experts and their areas of expertise; id of users and their CoPs Link from UI topics to related KM content, people and processes Taxonomies Taxonomies are ways to structure vast amounts of information, e.g. Dewey system, SIC, animal kingdom Multiple parallel taxonomies can co-exist, e.g. from a product point of view from a process point of view from a R#038;D point of view The “first cut” at a taxonomy should be done by a domain expert and KM expert Taxonomies can be living entities (updateable) Content that is mapped by the taxonomies can be automatically “refreshed” and sorted Yahoo: Hierarchical Taxonomy Northern Light: “Word” Folders TheBrain: Semantic Nets Semio: Categories on demand Themescape:Word Count and Relation Dataware: Concept Identification Checklist (con’t) Share and Collaborate Connect people with other people via groupware Major KM technology – stimulates collaboration Real-time application sharing and videoconferencing, chat rooms Exchange of info as well as sharing creation of products, sharing workspace Ability to link to experts on-demand if they are online Allow multiple authoring, shared retrieval by CoP members Group decision support systems Shared screen conferencing Networked virtual meetings Collaborate Find (people) Validate (external confirmation of people as experts, content as valid) Facilitate Mediate (the differences in time and space) Augment Share align Evolution of Collaboration and Knowledge Management What is Groupware? Collaboration = the ability to work together and exchange information and knowledge Show clear economic benefits in order to be successful and to be sustained Groupware = the electronic technologies that support person-to-person collaboration Email, electronic meeting systems, desktop videoconferencing, workflow and BPR Building Community Organizations are beginning to realize the importance of relationships to managing knowledge and intellectual capital Most organizations are now networks of small communities – CoPs that are purpose-driven Need to build the electronic and cultural infrastructure to support these communities Technologies to Support Collaboration Increasingly in demand due to: Distributed workforces – Virtualization of work – Information overload – Time-to-market pressures – “on” and “contactable” at all times, upon demand Definitions of Groupware Groupware supports the efforts of teams and other communities which require people to work together even though they are not actually in the same time and/or space Relatively new term first coined in 1978 “intentional group processes plus software to support them” “a co-evolving human-tool system” “computer-mediated collaboration that increases the productivity or functionality of peer processes” Groupware Taxonomy Twelve functional categories are used to form a logical taxonomy which includes 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. A separate category for g/w services, A separate category for g/w applications and A special category for internet-based collaborative applications Electronic mail #038; messaging 7. Workflow Group calendaring #038; scheduling 8. Workgroup utilities and development tools Electronic meeting systems 9. Groupware services Desktop video, Real Time synchronous conferencing 10. Groupware and KM frameworks Non-Real Time asynchronous conferencing 11. Groupware applications Group document handing 12. Collaborative Internet-based applications and products Sle Groupware Products 1. Electronic Mail and Messaging Microsoft Exchange, LotusNotes, Eudora.. Issues Standards How to integrate multiple mail systems in one organization Security Etiquette and efficient use of email Filters, agents, and the ability to deal with 100s of messages a day (organization, archiving, threads, s) 2. Group Calendaring and Scheduling Calendar, meeting and resource coordination Lotus Organizer, Synchronize, OnTime, MeetingMaker, Microsoft Schedule+, Corp Time Issues Proliferation of meetings as they are easier to schedule Privacy (big brother) for personal calendars Enough users in the organization to make it useful Scheduling across multiple time zones Capturing minutes of such virtual meetings 3. Electronic Meeting Systems (EMS) Real-time conferencing (local and remote) Collaborative presentation systems MeetingWorks, TeamTalk, Facilitate.com Issues Integration with calendaring/scheduling systems Post meeting follow-ups, action items, goals, commitments Affordability of desktop videoconferencing Availability of multipoint conferencing Lack of standards limits application of the technology Acceptance within the corporate culture 4. Desktop and Real-Time Data Conferencing Can store documents, work on documents simultaneously, on a whiteboard or on each others’ screens PlaceWare, NetMeeting, PictureTalk, FarSight Issues Control of cursor on the screen Number of people who can participate efficiently Role of facilitator – is one needed? Interaction/baud rates, equipment compatibility Internet and intranet availability Post-meeting follow-ups action items, goals, commitments 5. Non-Real-Time Conferencing Like a public or private bulletin board Collabra, eRoom, QuickPlace, WebBoard, Groupwise.. Issues No of people? Facilitator needed? Maximizing benefits of conferences/discussions, ROI Replication, network topologies, scalability Transaction-based vs. store-and-forward databases Support for worldwide locations Integration with legacy systems, calendaring, scheduling Post-meeting follow-ups, action items, goals, commitments 6. Group Document Handling Group editing, shared screen, document management Domino.doc, MarkUp, Livelink, Enterprise DMS Issues Page mark up standards (SGML, HTML, ) Support for word processors and page layouts Version control and document security Integration with enterprise DMS, image dbases– where does DMS stop #038; multimedia begin? Data integrity #038; integration with other docs, repositories Compression issues 7. Workflow and Process Tools Workflow process diagramming and analysis tools ActionWorks, Staffware, JetForm, LiveLink…. Issues Workflow coalition standards Passing documents and information between products Automating poor processes Integration with EDI and other customer services 8. Workgroup Utilities and G/W Development Tools To support group working, remote access to others’ computers, workgroup applications development tools Windows for Workgroups, LotusNotes, ReplicAction Issues What functionality should be part of the OS and what functionality should be part of the application? What are the decision-making issues when deciding whether to develop for the OS, GUI or network? How to ensure issuer compatibility, standards, object-oriented (reusable) code, licensing (network, multimedia, intellectual property rights) 9. Groupware Services Services to support collaboration such as: planning #038; implementation, application development, training #038; maintenance, change management, BPR, 9. Groupware Services (con’t) KM, electronic meeting facilitation, online community building #038; consulting Issues No single vendor offers a complete g/w solution – how do you identify and pull together the resources best suited to your organization? How are meetings facilitated successfully? What tools are best suited for reengineering? How to identify the problems with the greatest potential for turnaround from groupware? How are consultants best used? What do they know that people in your organization don’t? It is imperative that top management and all stakeholders support any process change – how do you enlist and sustain their support? How to evaluate the ROI of your groupware? Sle Groupware Products (con’t) 10. Groupware and KM Frameworks Products that help integrate islands of collaboration to make seamless across computer platforms, OS, email systems and network architectures GroupWise, TeamOffice, Gold/Metal, Lotus.. Issues Integrating the desktop while supporting collab. efforts Security Can frameworks help collaboration outside of the organization? Will establishing groupware standards make frameworks less attractive? 11. Groupware Applications Vertical apps that use collab techs to either enhance processes or support collab in specific work environ CustomerFirst, MedTrak, CenterPoint Issues Customizing applications, infrastsructure and cost issues Vertical market competition Does application solve specific collab business need Integration with existing legacy systems 12. Collaborative Internet-based Applications Collab functions are moving to the World Wide Web Domino/eSuite, LiveLink, Learning Space, …. Issues Application customization for seamless WWW collab Costs of publishing to and from the Web Data/information storage Balance between security and collaboration Limits of traditional g/w relative to Web applications Limits of Web applications relative to traditional g/w Integration with existing legacy systems Collaboration and Groupware Today collaboration no longer has a long learning curve nor is very expensive Anyone with a server and s/w can support collaboration Collaboration means a change in communication behaviours Change in culture – change in organizational structure So…What is a Portal? Basically: A home-page on steroids. Provides access to diverse enterprise content Provides access to enterprise communities Provides links to services within the enterprise Provides key links to services and information outside the enterprise Provides “utility services”, e.g. personalization, security Channels More…. Different Types of Portals Case: First Creative Alternative Case: Third Alternative Checklist (con’) Synthesize Discovery of new knowledge and insights from available information: BI, data, skill, text mining Extracting data, downloading data for user analysis and reuse, visual representation of trends and patterns Profile and Personalize Align and group people into work and interest communities and with information, objects or interests Self-selected alignment, peer-selected alignment or enterprise-determined alignment or automated alignment based on history of usage Filter incoming information to match user needs Part of security program Automated agents = s/w that acts as an intermediary for a person by performing some activity. Agents can learn an individual’s preferences to deliver knowledge to them “at point of need” – to search, retrieve, synthesis, recommend on behalf of the user Solve or Recommend Encode knowledge in a model that produces a solution or recommendation E.g. credit-risk assessment, insurance underwriting, equipment diagnosis Rule-based systems, case-based reasoning systems, neural networks used for this highly task-oriented type of knowledge Can be triggered by workflow rule and then delivered to individuals or groups based on their profiles Task Support Objectives: The Digital Insurance Office Offers insurance agents just-in-time access to: Relevant checklists Relevant standards, guidelines Relevant articles of law Right procedures Useful training modules Relevant exles Relevant tools, templates, job aids List of people who can help you in accomplishing this task – now! Other Tools and Technologies for Knowledge Sharing Relational databases Intranets Data analysis tools Document search Web portals Information filters Knowledge Mapping Data warehouses Data mining tools CRM Enterprise profiling AI tools (CBR, agents) Group memory context Teamware KM is inherently about collaboration so it is a perfect fit with social media KM also leads to greater transparency – again a good fit Last but not least – collaborative content creation can only fuel KM implementation in both organizational and in networks What about social media? Wikis Twitter Blogs Web 2.0 FaceBook LinkedIn Others… Ch 9 – KM Strategy KM Strategy Answering the “why” and “so what” questions General Approaches Bottom-up grassroots pilot projects Top-down based on objectives Middle-out – a combination of the above KM Strategy Framework BTOPP: Benefit-Tools-Organization-Process-People Some Exles KM Strategy – Key Steps 1. Understand business objectives 2. Describe KM issues (need for a KM solution) 3. Inventory existing resources (KM audit) 4. Agree on KM objectives 5. Perform gap analysis between “as is” (from audit) and desired “to be” states (from KM objectives) 6. Recommend short term (1-year) road map and 3-5 year KM strategy 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Understand business objectives Describe KM issues (need for a KM solution) Inventory existing resources (KM audit) Assess the core KM policies, activities, practices, tools etc… that are in use in the organisation Agree on KM objectives Perform gap analysis between “as is” (from audit) and desired “to be” states (from KM objectives) Recommend short term (1-year) road map and 3-5 year KM strategy KM Audit What information/content is there? How is it currently stored/used/coded? Who is responsible for the different types of content and their coordination? What criteria are used to value/select content? How is value added to content? How is content proactively managed for organizational viability and competitiveness? Conducting a knowledge audit is the first step in developing a KM strategy. A knowledge audit is meant to identify owners, users, uses, and key attributes of an organization’s key knowledge attributes. Assessing the status of existing knowledge practices within the organization should be done prior to developing KM objectives. The KM audit should review how well an organization is addressing Knowledge capture, codification, and or creation through knowledge repositories and knowledge continuity programs; Knowledge sharing and dissemination through communities of practice, knowledge portals and organizational storytelling; Knowledge acquisitions and re-use through taxonomies and content management policies. Interviewing stakeholders to establish knowledge needs is an excellent method for gaining an overview of the knowledge within an organization. The level of organizational readiness for a KM strategy and particular initiatives can also be assessed during the KM audit and mapped onto a maturity model map Typical KM Audit Questions What is the average age of your employees? Have you done a good job of documenting processes and capturing knowledge? Do you have a mentoring program in place to transfer and share knowledge between experts and newcomers to the organization? Do you spend a good part of the day looking for valuable content that has been misplaced? Do you have time to chat with your colleagues in an informal way? KM Objective Formulation Supporting and enhancing existing knowledge processes (which were identified in he knowledge audit) is the ultimate goal of KM and should be the target of KM objectives KM objectives should explicitly point out the amount and type of contribution they can be expected to bring to bear on the higher level organizational goals. KM objectives should be created on the normative, strategic and operational levels and should address organizational structures, activities and behaviours on all three levels. A KM visioning workshop is an effective tool for identifying and developing KM objectives Best practices in KM goal #038; objective formulation Operationalize KM goals into objectives Coordinate KM goals with existing goals Break down KM goals into departments, groups and individuals Ensure all goals are measurable 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Understand business objectives Describe KM issues (need for a KM solution) Inventory existing resources (KM audit) Agree on KM objectives Perform gap analysis between “as is” (from audit) and desired “to be” states (from KM objectives) Analyse the difference between the findings in the knowledge audit (the current state of KM in the organisation) and the KM objectives (the desired state) Recommend short term (1-year) road map and 3-5 year KM strategy 6. Key Findings – Phase 3: KM Gap Analysis Conducting a gap analysis, in which the gap between the organization’s current KM activities/capacities and its KM goals/objectives follows the identification of KM goals and objectives Organizational culture is generally one of the major enablers or obstacles to bridging the gap between current KM status and desired KM status KM initiatives should be designed with the organization’s culture in mind to help garner support for, and increase the chances of success of, the initiatives Gap Analysis ../2 What are the major differences between the current and desired KM states of the organization? List barriers to KM implementation List KM leverage points (enablers) Identify opportunities to collaborate with other business units/initiatives Conduct a risk analysis Are there any redundancies? Silos? Potential for synergies? 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Understand business objectives Describe KM issues (need for a KM solution) Inventory existing resources (KM audit) Agree on KM objectives Perform gap analysis between “as is” (from audit) and desired “to be” states (from KM objectives) Recommend short term (1-year) road map and 3-5 year KM strategy Development of a road map representing a three- to five-year strategy with clear milestones, targets and metrics to measure the successful achievement of them KM Road Map How will the organization manage its knowledge better for the benefit of the business? Content management priorities (explicit and tacit content) Identification of processes, people, products, services, organizational memory, relationships, knowledge assets as high priority knowledge leverage points to focus on What is the clear, direct link between KM levers and business objectives? How will KM capability be sustained over the long term? KM Strategy Recommendations A KM Road Map, which typically represents a three- to five-year plan for implementing a KM strategy with clear milestones or targets to be achieved throughout that time, is an effective tool for structuring the development and implementation of a KM strategy. Developing a KM metric strategy is critical part of ensuring the success of a KM strategy as well as all KM initiatives. The appropriate measurement framework will be determined by the organization’s existing measurement practices and culture as well the nature of KM initiative to be measured. Build sustainability of the KM strategy by developing upper-level KM positions within the organization, by training employees in key KM skills, and developing a culture of organizational knowledge sharing and learning What are some critical success factors? Consistency between core values, business strategy and actual work environment The best KM solutions address a business issue that is already perceived to be important. Ensure KM strategy is integrated with other organizational strategies Involve IT and human resources from the start to expedite KM implementation Top leaders serve as good role models – “they walk the talk” A passionate, committed line business leader is key to successful KM initiatives st nd Exles of 1 and 2 year KM Strategies Create KM awareness at all levels (working groups, seminars) Develop CoPs with active facilitators Begin mentoring programs Develop technology infrastructure needed to support KM Incorporate KM strategy into organizational strategy Develop organizational roles needed to support KM (KM team) Embed KM processes (lifecycle) into everyday working activities of employees (e.g. capture lessons learned during each phase of project, sto…
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