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College of Administrative and Financial Sciences Assignment 1 Deadline: 17/10/2020 @ 23:59 Course Name: Logistics Management Student’s Name: Course Code: MGT-322 Student’s ID Number: Semester: I CRN: Academic Year: 1441/1442 H For Instructor’s Use only Instructor’s Name: Students’ Grade: Marks Obtained/Out of Level of Marks: High/Middle/Low Instructions – PLEASE READ THEM CAREFULLY • The Assignment must be submitted on Blackboard (WORD format only) via allocated folder. • Assignments submitted through email will not be accepted. • Students are advised to make their work clear and well presented, marks may be reduced for poor presentation. This includes filling your information on the cover page. • Students must mention question number clearly in their answer. • Late submission will NOT be accepted. • Avoid plagiarism, the work should be in your own words, copying from students or other resources without proper referencing will result in ZERO marks. No exceptions. • All answered must be typed using Times New Roman (size 12, double-spaced) font. No pictures containing text will be accepted and will be considered plagiarism). • Submissions without this cover page will NOT be accepted. Assignment: 1 Submission Date by students: Before the end of Week- 7th (17.10.2020) Place of Submission: Students Grade Centre Weight: 10 Marks Learning Outcome: 1. Demonstrate a deep understanding of the logistic function concepts and theories as well as supply chain management strategies. 2. Analyze and identify challenges and issues pertaining to logistical processes. 3. The capacity to write coherent project about actual logistic case studies. Assignment Workload: This assignment is an individual assignment. Critical Thinking The purpose of this assignment is to identify and apply Logistics and Supply Chain Management concepts/tools to suggest supply chain process/logistics performance priorities. To this purpose, you should Study chapter 1, 2 and review Fast food industry /Food companies through secondary available information. Think about how you can apply the concepts/tools that you learned in this course. Select a fast-food company of your choice, research the impact of Covid-19 on that company. Explain why you have come to your conclusions: The Answer should be 4- 5 pages The Answer must follow the outline points below: 1. Executive summary (no more than one page) – Summarize, what is Supply chain process/logistics performance priorities, what Logistics and Supply Chain Management concepts/tools applied to achieve the company’s objective. 2. Background information – Briefly introduce the company background (e.g., name, products, business size, location, internal/external interesting facts, etc). 3. Problem Description (Covid 19) – Describe the objectives clearly and specifically. – The objective may involve either logistics decision-making or process improvement. 4. Application of logistics and Supply Chain Management concepts/tools applied – Describe, what specific logistics and Supply Chain Management concepts/tools be applied to achieve the objective. This section should make it clear that you understand the concepts/tools you are about to use. 5. Results – Analyze the expected results of the proposed solution. 6. References CHAPTER 2 Putting the end-customer first Objectives The intended objectives of this chapter are to: ● develop the marketing perspective on logistics and the need for close coordination between the two functions; ● explain how customer segmentation works, and to emphasise its importance to logistics; ● outline the role of demand forecasting and the links with marketing; ● explain the connection between quality of service and customer loyalty; ● show how current segmentation practice can be re-engineered to set logistics priorities. By the end of this chapter you should be able to understand: ● how supply chains should compete by aligning logistics strategy with marketing strategy; ● how to use logistics strategy drivers to help redefine segments to achieve this alignment. Introduction In Chapter 1 we looked at the logistics task from the perspective of material flow and information flow. We also saw how logistics contributes to competitive strategy and the performance objectives by which we can measure this contribution. But what is it that drives the need for flow in the first place? The key point to recognise here is that it is the behaviour of the end-customer that should dictate what happens. The end-customer starts the logistics response by buying finished products. It is this behaviour that causes materials to flow through the supply chain. Only end-customers should be free to make up their minds about when they want to place an order on the network – after that, the system takes over. Quality of service addresses the process of handing over products and services to end-customers. It is after this process has been completed that a product/service reaches its full value. And the handover process offers many opportunities for adding value. Instead of picking up a product from a distributor who is remote from the focal firm, there are opportunities during the sales transaction (for exle, help and advice in using the focal firm’s products), as well after the sales transaction (for exle, after sales service and warranty). 36 Chapter 2 • Putting the end-customer first This chapter explores the link between marketing strategy and logistics strategy. It introduces this link, and shows how it is possible to identify logistics priorities – and hence the tasks at which logistics needs to excel. Key issues This chapter addresses four key issues: 1 The marketing perspective: the impact of rising customer expectations and the information revolution. 2 Segmentation and demand forecasting: and their implications for logistics strategy. 3 Quality of service: the link between customer satisfaction and customer loyalty. 4 Setting priorities for logistics strategy: creating advantage by redefining segments in logistics terms. 2 .1 The marketing perspective Key issue: What are the marketing implications for logistics strategy? ‘Marketing’ has traditionally been associated with anticipating, identifying and satisfying customer requirements profitably. In our terms, such a definition emphasises the focal firm and outbound logistics. But a more current definition emphasises value in the context of the broader supply chain – and that includes partners rather than just customers: Marketing is the activity, set of institutions, and processes for creating, communicating, delivering, and exchanging offerings that have value for customers, partners, and society at large. (American Marketing Association, 2007) Marketing in practice comprises the plans and decisions that determine how these processes will be carried out. Ultimately, satisfied end-customers are seen as the only source of profit, growth and security. Sir Terry Leahy, Chief executive of Tesco plc, talks of harnessing customer power (2005): The basic assumption that customers choose – that they know best what they want – means that they have become the centre of the retailer’s universe. In the best businesses, their decisions drive everything. These choices are also judgements. They pick the winners and losers in retail and in manufacturing. This is not theoretical: they regularly pass verdicts, moving from product to product and store to store. These judgements send strong feedback – shocks might be a better word – forcing change. Louis Gerstner (2002: 47) explained that the amazing turnaround of IBM in the 1990s was about ‘a customer was now running IBM’. In Chapter 1, we referred to ‘tier 1 customers’ with whom a focal firm deals directly, and to ‘end-customers’ who are the individuals or businesses that buy the finished ‘product’ at the downstream end of the supply network. It is therefore usual to refer to two types of customer: ● business customers: who represent the focal firm’s immediate trading environment (see Figure 1.2); ● end-customers: who represent the ultimate customer for the network as a whole (see Figure 1.4). The marketing perspective 37 We refer to these types of relationships as ‘business to business’ (B2B) and ‘business to customer’ (B2C) accordingly. In section 1.2.2 of Chapter 1, we referred to the need to integrate supply chain processes so that they are aligned towards end-customer needs. In this sense, B2B integration should be aligned towards the ultimate B2C process. We also need to distinguish here between customers and consumers. Webster (2000) defines them thus: ● consumers are people who use or consume the product; ● customers are individuals or businesses who buy the product, meaning that they acquire it and pay for it. It is usual in business today to refer to ‘customers’ as the next process downstream in a supply chain. This includes ‘all types of marketing intermediaries or channel members who buy for resale to their customers’ (Webster, 2000). But ‘satisfied customers’ are increasingly hard to find. This has been caused by widespread changes that are affecting the world we live in. Two of the major changes are rising customer expectations and the information revolution (Doyle, 2000). We expand on these below. 2 .1.1 Rising customer expectations Expectations have risen among customers in line with a general increase in the wealth of developed countries over the last half century. This increase in expectations has many causes, including: ● better levels of general education; ● better ability to discern between alternative products; ● exposure to more lifestyle issues in the media. These expectations have led to customers not only aspiring to more desirable products, they are also demanding much better levels of service to be associated with those products. Businesses are also expecting more from their suppliers. Suppliers need to pay increasing attention to the service aspects of their dealings with industrial customers. This is especially true when the customer has implemented more customer-centric management systems such as just-in-time (Chapter 6). 2 .1.2 The information revolution The explosion in applications of internet technology continues to have sweeping effects on the way that business is transacted today. Applications that have sprung from the world wide web have impacted both B2C and business to business B2B relationships. ● Business to consumer (B2C): online retailing has developed rapidly in recent years, and organisations such as Amazon.com continue to extend the range of products they offer, Many retail firms based on the traditional ‘bricks and mortar’ model have fought back by launching their own websites and online catalogues. The world wide web has become another channel to market for the 38 Chapter 2 • Putting the end-customer first retail industry, as home shopping accelerates in industry sectors as diverse as books, music and furniture. ● Business to business (B2B): here, the impact has been even greater than in B2C, but perhaps less visible. Businesses increasingly use web portals, online marketplaces and other collaborative online applications to exchange information, undertake transactions (such as buying and selling) and organise delivery and payment. These forms of inter-firm collaboration are leading to closer integration of processes between businesses and helping to break down some of the traditional barriers in buyer–supplier relationships. ● Supply chain implications: developments in B2B and B2C exchanges also have an impact on how the supply chain operates. The ability to exchange information more effectively and accurately should enable more reliability in supply chain operations, as well as lowering the costs of ordering. The availability of shared information also facilitates improved management of inventory, forecasts and use of assets. Web-enabled data exchange facilitates replacement of inventory with information, resulting in lower working capital. Faced with rising customer expectations and the information revolution, supply chain partners are increasingly looking at how they can be more demand-led, and respond more rapidly to market requirements. The starting point is to put the end-customer first by analysing their needs and wants. The marketing perspective has a well-known way to help in this analysis – segmentation. 2 .2 Segmentation Key issue: What is segmentation, and what are its implications to logistics strategy? Segmentation describes how a given market might be broken up into different groups of customers with similar needs. It means ‘describing the market as simply as possible while doing our best to emphasise its variety’ (Millier and Palmer, 2000). We start by considering market segmentation from a customer perspective in what are usually described as ‘fast-moving consumer goods (FMCG)’ markets. For exle, segmentation of the market for suntan creams and lotions would begin with an understanding of: ● the benefits wanted (e.g. water resistance, oil/non-oil, sun factor); ● the price consumers are prepared to pay; ● the media to which they are exposed (television programmes, magazines, Google ads, etc.); ● the amount and timing of their purchases. Profiles of the segments and evaluation of their relative attractiveness to a focal firm can then be developed. There are many possible ways in which markets can be segmented, including: ● demographic: such as age, sex and education; ● geographic: such as urban v country, type of house and region; Segmentation 39 ● technical: the use that customers are going to make of a product; ● behavioural: such as spending pattern and frequency of purchase. Of the various ways to segment markets, we have found that behavioural segmentation, which ‘divides buyers into groups based on their knowledge of, attitude towards, and use of or response to a product’ (Kotler and Keller, 2009) is a powerful way to bridge marketing and logistics. For exle, Finne and Sivonen (2009) describe a study of behavioural segments in convenience stores in Europe. Six segments were identified – main, top-up, impulse, distress, grab-and-go and habitual shoppers. ‘Top-up’ shoppers may only value bread, milk and convenience foods, while an ‘impulse’ shopper is attracted by special offers and displays. It is vital that the definition of segments is not a marketing-only task, but that logistics is involved. The key point is that defining segments that cannot be served because logistics capability does not exist is unlikely to work. For exle, if most of the spending pattern is around Christmas, then logistics must be capable of supporting the huge surge in demand at that time. Case study 2.1 explains how a retailer views its behavioural segments. CASE STUDY 2 .1 Managing events and promotions in the retail sector If end-customers only purchased their requirements in line with their use, then it would be relatively easy to reorganise the end-to-end supply chain from shelf to national warehouse using lean principles (see Chapter 6). A simple demand–pull system replenishing tomorrow that which has been sold today, direct to shelf, would streamline store operations and reduce inventories significantly. Retailers such as Wal-Mart in the US and Tesco in Britain have pursued an everyday low price policy in an attempt to maximise this ‘steady state’ replenishment policy. However, in Europe, most retailers have found that customers enjoy promotions and that promotions boost sales. In any case, events such as Christmas and back to school create huge surges in demand. Events may be divided in two: seasonal events and promotional events, as shown in Table 2.1. Table 2 .1 Exle seasonal events and promotions Seasonal events ● ● ● ● ● Valentine’ Day Mother’s Day Summer holidays Back to school Christmas Promotions ● ● ● ● ● ● Three for two Buy one get one free 10% off for a week Happy hour !20% Triple loyalty card points Gift with purchase Retailers have no control over the timing of seasonal events and it is usually very difficult to forecast likely demand with normal levels of accuracy. In contrast, promotional events are planned by retailers and their suppliers. Consequently, while demand may be unpredictable, the timing of such events is known in advance. It is surprising, therefore, how often consumers will find that items on promotion are not on the shelf and that display aids and promotional material will be missing. The event that has the greatest effect is 40 Chapter 2 • Putting the end-customer first Christmas – where sales usually start growing in October, r up in November and peak in December. This is the only profitable quarter for many retailers. The product is frequently sourced from the Far East and once the order has been delivered there will be no further shipments. Retailers need to plan for this activity months in advance and cross their fingers that they will not miss sales through under-ordering or buy too much with the consequent write-downs in the January sale. The position is further complicated in a national chain where demand patterns will be different store by store and region by region. Many retailers allocate their Christmas merchandise to individual stores on the basis of previous year’s sales for the particular product category and hope for the best. A lean design supply chain is unable to cope with such spiky demand, which will be affected further by marketing efforts and the latest fad. Retailers therefore need to be particularly agile in their approach in order to satisfy unknown demand. Boots the Chemist (BTC) – the leading UK health and beauty retailer – has approached this problem by outsourcing specific Christmas merchandise deliveries. These deliveries are scheduled at different times of the day from ‘normal’ deliveries. In this way, while not dealing with the issues created by unpredictable demand, store operations can apply appropriate resources to unload vehicles and put away directly to shelf or indirectly to stockroom. Historically, promotional events in BTC were a fairly hit and miss affair with hundreds of products being promoted within a four-week window. There was a high reliance on good luck for all the elements to come together prior to the start of the promotional period. Inevitably some products, display aids and show material arrived late. Store operations at the end of the supply chain then had to try and mount the promotions with what had been delivered. Consumers were dissatisfied with the result and sales were lost. The solution was to create a dedicated promotions team within the categories. The team masterminded the overall promotional plan and were made responsible for the delivery of products, display aids and show materials into the national distribution centres (NDCs). A successful trial was then conducted whereby most of the work required to mount the promotion was done by logistics staff in the regional distribution centres (RDCs) for each of the individual stores. The trial comprised sending allocations of all the promotional requirements to the RDCs from the NDCs. Staff in the RDCs then picked products for a week’s anticipated sales (based on historical data for that line by individual store) into totes for directto-shelf delivery together with appropriate display aids and show material. The totes were then placed on dollies, rolled on and off vehicles, and wheeled into the shop to the correct gondola end (end of free-standing ‘island’ shelf in a store). After three days, EPOS data were reviewed, and an accurate prediction of future sales to the end of the promotion was made. This was then used to calculate future replenishment requirements. Finally the merchandising teams were invited to devise clever ways to make shelves look full at the end of the promotion without using a lot of stock. This resulted in fewer ‘remainders’ from a promotion that had to be written down. BTC is currently implementing its design for a transformed end-to-end supply chain and the work described above is being gradually rolled out. (Source: Philip Matthews, formerly Supply Chain Director, BTC) Question 1 List the logistics challenges of mounting promotions and coping with events at a retailer such as BTC. Segmentation 41 Activity 2.1 Figure 2.1 shows a Pareto analysis of the annual sales to 886 customers in the portfolio of a book stockist. What actions could the stockist take to segment its market? How could each segment best be served? What are the operational implications for the stockist? (Check out Chris Anderson, ‘The Long Tail’ at http://www.thelongtail.com/about.html). 350, 000 Books sold per customer 300, 000 250, 000 200, 000 150, 000 100, 000 50, 000 0 1 250 750 500 1,000 1,250 Customers Figure 2 .1 Annual sales per customer for a book distributor, shown as a Pareto diagram The important characteristics of segments (McGoldrick, 2002) are that they must be: ● measurable: variables that can be easily identified and measured; ● economically viable: capable of producing the contribution that justifies the effort and cost of marketing; ● accessible: geographically or in terms of media communications; ● actionable: can be attracted and served effectively. The next step is to select target segments and identify how a focal firm is going to win orders in each. In other words, to define differential advantage that distinguishes our offerings from those of our competitors. In logistics terms, the important issues here are the order winning criteria (OWC), and qualifying criteria (QC) for the target segments. These help in turn to define the marketing mix. The marketing mix is the set of marketing decisions that is made to implement positioning strategy (target market segments and differential advantage) and to achieve the associated marketing and financial goals. The marketing mix has 42 Chapter 2 • Putting the end-customer first been popularly termed the ‘4 Ps’ (McCarthy, 1964): ● product: range, sizes, presentation and packaging, design and performance; ● price: list price, discounts, geographical pricing, payment terms; ● promotion: sales force, advertising, consumer promotion, trade promotion, direct marketing; ● place: channel selection, market coverage, distribution systems, dealer support. Logistics contributes fundamentally to the ‘place’ decisions, as well as supporting ‘product’ and ‘promotion’ decisions. All too often, ‘place’ activities are viewed as the bit bolted to the back of production that gets inventory away from the factory and into stock-holding points such as warehouses. In order to achieve the goal of ‘the right product in the right place at the right time’, logistics systems and processes need to be designed to support products in the marketplace. Segmentation principles can also be applied to industrial marketing. But ‘there are distinct differences between the marketing of industrial products and consumer goods’ (Millier and Palmer, 2000: 60), as summarised in Table 2.2. Table 2 .2 Comparison between consumer and industrial marketing Consumer Industrial Customers Many, widely dispersed Few, concentrated Market Consumers directly served by retailers and distributors Derived demand Industrial chain, long and complex Buying behaviour Individual and family decision Group decision Formal procedures High buyer power Relationships Low individual buying power Formal procedures High buyer power Product Standard Positioned on emotional and perceptual factors Technical complexity Specification important Bespoke and customised Price Low unit price Take it or leave it No negotiation High unit price Tender and negotiation Standard items from price list Promotion Mass media advertising Role of the brand Emphasis on personal selling Reputation important Place Established retail chain Stock availability, Seasonality Direct made to order Standard items in stock Let us turn to an industrial marketing exle to illustrate how new segments can impact on logistics capability. CASE STUDY 2 .2 Powerdrive Motors Tom Cross took over as Managing Director at Powerdrive Motors in South Africa three years ago. At the time, the company was an established manufacturer of small electric motors with a strong reputation for product reliability and technical leadership. On the Segmentation 43 downside, it was also regarded in the trade as having high prices and variable delivery. Tom’s first task was to tackle the huge product variety on offer. He saw this as the major problem in addressing the negative views in the marketplace, and also saw opportunities in streamlining design and production. The product range was replaced with a new generation of designs based on a few hundred ‘modules’, which could be assembled in many different combinations to give variety at low cost. This meant the loss of some customers who had gone to Powerdrive because they could rely on the company’s technical leadership to produce designs that suited their particular needs. This was not considered important because the combined sales volume of such customers was under 5 per cent. Using the new designs, Tom was now able to reorganise the factory into cells that produced major subassemblies such as rotors and stators. The work flow was transformed, and manufacturing throughput time was reduced from six weeks to just four days. Cost improvements meant that average price reductions of between 10 and 15 per cent could be offered. Powerdrive’s customer service policy was redrafted to offer quotations within a maximum of one hour of any enquiry, and for deliveries of finished product to be made within one week ‘anywhere in northern Europe’. This new policy was explained to internal sales staff, and to sales representatives and agents employed by the organisation. If ‘old’ customers wanted special designs that were no longer in the range, the sales staff were instructed to explain Powerdrive’s new policy and politely decline the order. At first, business soared. Impressed by the lower prices and short delivery times, customers flocked to Powerdrive and sales jumped by 50 per cent. But then things began to go sour. First, the factory could no longer cope with the demands being placed on it. The addition of a large order for lawnmower motors blocked out a lot of production capacity from January to June. Order lead times during this period in particular slid back to former levels. Second, a Brazilian supplier spotted the opportunity to enter the market with prices that undercut Powerdrive by 20 per cent. While only half of the product range was covered by this new entrant, it was the high volume products that were especially threatened. Further, the new competitor offered threeday lead times from stock that had been established in the country. Third, some of the former customers who could no longer obtain their bespoke designs from Powerdrive were complaining within the industry that Powerdrive’s technical leadership had been sacrificed. Although small in number, such customers were influential at trade fairs and conferences. Questions 1 Evaluate the changes that took place in the segmentation of Powerdrive’s market. 2 Characterise the changes using the concept of order winners and qualifiers. Segmentation is often undertaken by adopting the easy way to group customers – by account size. While this is easily measurable, it fails on the fourth of McGoldrick’s criteria listed above: it is not actionable in logistics terms. An exle from our research in the fast-moving consumer goods (FMCG) sector illustrates the problems of poor alignment between marketing and logistics. 44 Chapter 2 • Putting the end-customer first CASE STUDY 2 .3 Segmentation at CleanCo CleanCo is a Polish manufacturer of cleaning products that serves the European grocery retailing market. CleanCo currently segments its customers on the value of customer accounts. The primary division is between national accounts, for which ten accounts constitute 70 per cent of sales by value, and field sales, which comprise a long ‘tail’ of more than 200 accounts that together make up only 30 per cent of sales. Due to the size of the field sales structure, a secondary classification groups accounts by channel type: neighbourhood retail, discount and pharmacy. CleanCo recognises the need to reduce the long customer ‘tail’ and is introducing distributors for orders below a minimum quantity. CleanCo’s current approach to segmentation is summarised in Table 2.3. Table 2 .3 CleanCo – current approach to market segmentation National accounts Field sales 70% sales 30% sales, 200+ accounts 10 accounts Neighbourhood retail Discount sector Pharmacy While CleanCo currently segments its retail customers by account size, its sales organisation has identified two significant types of buying behaviour displayed by the customer base, shown in Table 2.4: ● ● volume-driven buying behaviour; margin-driven buying behaviour. Volume-driven customers are keen to capitalise on both product and supply chain cost savings in order to pass them on to their customers to drive volume sales. There are two variants of the volume-driven behaviour: ● ● everyday low price (EDLP); discount. Retailers pursuing an EDLP strategy strive for continuous price reduction from suppliers such as CleanCo to drive a fairly consistent, high volume of sales. This should result in a relatively stable pattern of demand in the washing and bathing sector. Discounters, on the other hand, are looking for bargains so they can ‘stack ‘em high and sell ‘em cheap’, a strategy more likely to result in a volatile demand pattern. Margin-driven customers are keen to add value for their customers by offering a wide selection of products and value-adding services. This strategy also results in a relatively stable demand pattern in this sector. Table 2 .4 CleanCo – potential for behavioural segmentation Volume-driven Margin-driven Everyday lowprice (EDLP) Discount A complicating factor when trying to deconstruct the buying behaviour of CleanCo’s customers is that several secondary factors are used to support products in the marketplace. Segmentation 45 Such factors include product types (e.g. premium, mid, utilitarian), product range (e.g. current products, end of lines, ‘b’ grade), merchandising requirements (e.g. category captains) and promotions strategy (e.g. roll-back, 12-week, 4-week, Hi-Lo). Promotions are by far the most disruptive of these factors. Although the promotions are generally planned well in advance with the retailers, they cause significant disruption to the supply chain operations due to the peaks and troughs in demand that they create. Furthermore, the deeper the promotional activity the greater the volatility created and the greater the disruption to the supply chain. This has the effect of masking what is fundamentally a fairly stable demand pattern with somewhat artificial volatile demand. Strategic alignment can only be achieved if the supply chain is aligned behind the segmentation strategy that CleanCo has adopted. This is not currently the case with the CleanCo supply chain. Each operation within the supply chain makes decisions or segments its customers based on the functional criteria that affect its part of the supply chain. We have called this lack of alignment ‘matrix twist’, because the matrix of business processes at each stage of the supply chain has been apparently twisted so that the processes fail to fit with each other. As illustrated in Table 2.5, the decision criteria for CleanCo and its suppliers and customers change at each stage. This not only complicates material flows, but becomes a minefield if one considers it in terms of behavioural segments. Table 2 .5 Supply chain segmentation criteria Management process Supply chain decision Determined by Source Which suppliers? Raw material commodity type Make Which manufacturing site? Product family type Deliver Which manufacturer order size? Historically a function of warehouse? Which customer RDC? Product type and location of store to serve Which products to which store? Demographics of the store’s catchment area, which drives layout and range decisions In process of being divided by export paperwork requirements and customer account (arbitrary split) (Source: Godsell and Harrison, 2002) We develop the management processes ‘source’, ‘make’ and ‘deliver’ in the next chapter. Questions 1 What has caused the ‘matrix twist’ between CleanCo and its retail customers? 2 What actions are needed to straighten out the ‘matrix twist’? Chapter 2 • Putting the end-customer first 2 .3 Demand profiling Marketing people want to forecast demand in order to plan broad goals such as allocating the salesforce, setting sales goals, promotions planning and advertising caigns. But logistics people need to know how many to deliver, where and when to do so, for each sku in the product range and for each channel – not just for the range as a whole. This leads to a common perception of the two functions – marketing dealing in the abstract and logistics dealing in the day-today realities. The two business functions must be careful not to talk past each other, for both have important insights into what the end-customer wants. For many firms, of course, this is not an issue, and the two functions collaborate extensively. The aim is to combine forces and produce the most accurate profile of future demand. It is impossible to predict the future with certainty, so it is necessary to forecast what will happen. Accurate forecasts of demand are one of the key starting points for achieving competitive supply chains, reflected in such measures as high onshelf availability (the percentage of a trading day for which a given sku is available ‘on the shelf’ to be purchased by an end-customer) and low inventories. The key approaches to forecasting demand are explained at length in such texts as Wild (2002) and Waters (2003). Here, we will stick to some of the broad principles that apply to forecasting: first when there are limited or no historical data available, and second when such data are available. First, consider the demand profiles in Figure 2.2 when forecasting demand for a new product during the early stages of its lifecycle (introduction and growth). Actual demand Volume 46 Excess unsold stock Missed sales opportunities Introduction Growth Maturity Decline Stage in product lifecycle Figure 2 .2 The impact of uncertainty Demand profiling 47 A forecast which over-estimates the way that demand takes off results in too much inventory too early in the product lifecycle. If this situation is allowed to continue, it will result in the need to get rid of the surplus unsold stock by markdowns or by disposal. On the other hand, a forecast which under-estimates actual demand results in insufficient stock to meet what the end-customer wants. If allowed to continue, this results in lost sales opportunities and hence loss of market share to competitors who can better meet demand. Both scenarios are familiar challenges for grocery (such as managing promotions) and planning fashion goods for a new season when there is no directly usable history of demand, and forecasting relies on judgemental methods such as historical analogy, perhaps augmented by market research. New drugs (called ‘new pharmaceutical entities’, NCEs) are especially problematic because of the uncertainties of approval from the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) – which takes five years on average – and the take-up by physicians after launch. Lifecycle curves and growth functions can be used to model demand by incorporating ‘market based evidence, uncertainty and judgements about what might happen during the drug’s lifetime’ (Latta, 2007). When historical demand data such as point of sale (POS) are available, various modeling techniques can be used to produce projective forecasts. Consider the demand profile in Figure 2.3, which shows actual demand for years 1–3, and forecast demand for years 1–4. It is based on the profile of sales of a product called ‘barbecue sauce’, which is produced in many flavours and is sold mainly in the summer. Differences between actual A and forecast demand F (Case study 1.3 uses scheduled demand, S) for each period n of years 1–3 are termed the error, E: En ! An ” Fn Sales volume Actual Forecast Year 1 Year 2 Year 3 Actual Year 4 Forecast (a) Figure 2 .3 Modelling trend and seasonality (continued) 48 Chapter 2 • Putting the end-customer first n Tre d Base Year 1 Year 2 Year 3 Year 4 Base and trend Year 1 Year 2 Year 3 Year 4 Seasonality Year 1 Year 2 Year 3 Year 4 Uncertainty (b) Figure 2 .3 Continued If data are collected over a number of periods n (here, n = 36), then the mean absolute deviation (MAD) is a widely used measure of forecast error: MAD ! 1/n* a |An ” Fn| N n”1 In practice, the MAD may be exponentially weighted to give higher weightings to the most recent demand data (Wild, 2002: 176). The sidebar on Figure 2.3 shows how the total (aggregate) demand for this product can be broken down into four components: ● Base: the level demand that needs to be adjusted for trend and seasonality. ● Trend: the long-term trend, which shows a healthy increase year-on-year from base. ● Seasonality: the periodic increase and reduction in demand as a result of consumer behaviour – in this case between summer and winter. This can be measured by Demand profiling 49 means of a seasonal index – which is the seasonal value divided by the trend, calculated for each period. ● Uncertainty: sometimes called ‘randomness’, this is the balance of demand due to effects we cannot explain. These effects may include short-term weather variations, which mean that the consumer is put off barbecuing because it is too cold, wet or windy. Other demand ‘spikes’ may be due to special causes like the promotion of a particular flavour of sauce by a chef in a popular television programme. Base and trend demands can be found by linear regression analysis, and a seasonality index can be found by dividing the original data by the trend for each period. Uncertainty is usually allowed for by increasing the forecast to provide a safety margin to make it unlikely that there are missed sales opportunities (see Figure 2.2). Forecast demand for a future period n is then calculated from; Fn ! (base # trendn) $ seasonality indexn # uncertaintyn So forecast demand for year 4 was based on projecting historical data for these four components into the future. So far, the forecast has been carried out at the aggregate level, ‘barbecue sauce’. And this is what forecasting professionals often encourage you to do – forecast accuracy is best at aggregate level and worst at sku level. But there are many flavours in the range – such as sweet hickory, Cajun and peri-peri. And there are different pack sizes and territories that are supplied. So the aggregate plan has to be disaggregated into individual skus. This is often achieved by calculating the percentage of the total demand for each sku from historical data, and then applying a seasonality index to refine the forecast for each period (see, for exle, Ogrodowczyk, 2008). We return to the issue of disaggregation in section 6.1.1. Forecasting is a major factor in logistics today, and we have only touched on some of the key issues in this section. We address further issues in other sections of this book as follows: ● Because of uncertainty, it is better to rely less on forecasting by shrinking lead times and engaging more closely with actual demand (section 5.1.3). ● Several management approaches can be used to improve forecast accuracy (section 7.1.3). ● Forecasting should be recognised as a key business process (section 7.2.4). ● Poor internal coordination compounds forecasting problems (section 6.1.3). ● External coordination with partners in a supply chain can be used to develop better forecasts through collaborative planning, forecasting and replenishment (CPFR, section 8.3). Activity 2.2 Explain how marketing and logistics functions should work together to develop segmentation plans that can more easily be made to work in practice, and to create more accurate forecasts of demand. 50 Chapter 2 • Putting the end-customer first 2 .4 Quality of service Key issues: How do customer expectations affect logistics service? How does satisfaction stack up with customer loyalty? Most supply chains that involve physical products end with service processes such as retailing (grocery or apparel), healthcare (pharmaceutical and other medical goods) and distribution (motor cars). Service processes mean that the customer is present in some way, although distribution through web-based shopping, telephone and mail order mean that customers do not have to be physically present. Performance of service processes often differs between employees, between customers and from one hour to the next. If you want good service from the local supermarket, do not go on Saturdays or near to Christmas when the service is under severe capacity pressure: on-shelf availability is at its lowest, and queues at the checkout are at their longest. The key point is that ‘service is the combination of outcomes and experiences delivered to and received by the customer’ (Johnston and Clark, 2008). Quality of service takes place during service delivery, which is the interaction between the customer (B2B or B2C) and the service process. ‘Gaps’ can emerge between what the service is supposed to be, what the customer expects it to be, and how the customer perceives it when it is delivered (Zeithaml et al., 1988; Parasuraman et al., 1991). We can illustrate these gaps as a simplified gap model (Figure 2.4): ● Gap 1 refers to differences between customer expectations and how these have been developed into a service specification by the supplier. ● Gap 2 refers to differences between how the specification was drawn up and how it was delivered. ● Gap 3 refers to differences between what the customer expected and what he or she perceived was delivered. ● Gap 4 refers to differences between how supplier and customer perceived the service delivery. Gaps in quality of service can arise, as seen in Case study 2.4 on IKEA. Supplier Service specification Customer Gap 1 Gap 2 Service delivery Gap 3 Gap 4 Figure 2 .4 Simplified service quality gap model (Source: After Parasuraman et al., 1991) Expected service Perceived service Quality of service 51 CASE STUDY 2.4 Tears at teatime at IKEA Next week, Jane Fillimore will move into a new flat. You can tell something about the 28-year-old music-industry publicist from Kilburn, north-west London, from the list of furniture she is buying. There is the Pax Brivic wardrobe, the Norden dining table and the Bonde media storage combination. Fillimore wants style – but on a budget. She is part of Generation IKEA. Not that she wants to be. She hates the Swedish retailer, and only last Sunday had her worst shopping day ever at the firm’s superstore in a drab retail park near the new Wembley stadium in London. She wanted to pick up the Pax Brivic wardrobe she had ordered the week before. Easy, you might think, but just getting served was an ordeal. When she entered the store, an assistant told her to ‘walk the mile of hell’ past wannabe-stylish urban living rooms to the giant storage zone. The store did not have her wardrobe and a salesman sent her back through road works to IKEA’s nearby distribution centre. The distribution centre had the wardrobe, but could not give it to her without a receipt. To get one, she had to go back to the main store. But the main store had lost her order, so she had to go to customer service. This department is not called customer service at IKEA, it’s called customer returns, and it took her half an hour to find. By 4.30 pm, Fillimore was right back where she started. Exasperated, she put her head in her hands and burst into tears. ‘I don’t even like the wardrobe’, she sobbed. ‘I bought it because it’s cheap. That’s the only reason I come here.’ By 5.00 pm, the store is closing, and she can only dream of getting her wardrobe by Friday. She could walk back through the little sets that represent the nation’s living rooms to try one last time to find her wardrobe, but she can’t face it. As she walks out, I ask her if she knows that Argos and Sainsbury’s (two other UK retailers) are selling furniture. For the first time all day, she breaks into a smile. ‘Really?’ she grins. ‘I’ll go there tomorrow. I never want to come back to this place again.’ (Source: Based on an article by John Arlidge, Sunday Times, 26 October 2003) Question 1 When IKEA was founded 60 years ago by Ingmar Krad, he realised that customers did not mind queuing, collecting their purchases and assembling the furniture themselves as long as the price was right. Suggest why gaps in quality of service have opened up. 2.4.1 Customer loyalty While plugging gaps in service quality helps to improve customer satisfaction, this is a ‘qualifier’ for long-term customer loyalty. The two concepts are not the same. Piercy (2009) distinguishes them as follows: ● Customer satisfaction is what people think of us – quality of service, value for money. It is an attitude (how does a customer feel about our product/service?). ● Customer loyalty is how long we keep a customer (or what share of his or her business we take). It is a behaviour (does he or she buy from us more than once?). 52 Chapter 2 • Putting the end-customer first Nevertheless, the attitude of customer satisfaction is key to the behaviour of customer loyalty. Parasuraman and Grewal (2000) link the two concepts by proposing the ‘key drivers of customer loyalty’, shown in Figure 2.5. Also, note the connection to Tesco’s core purpose on page 6. There is a purpose to this beyond the words: Tesco seeks actively to extend its relationships with customers by offering a broad range of services such as optician, pharmacy, non-food, and bank and insurance products. All purchases in these diverse categories and its core grocery business are rewarded by the firm’s loyalty programme, which provides Tesco with further detailed insights into the behaviour of its customers. This data can be used for sophisticated segmentation that allows all customers to be ‘scored’ in one or more segments to allow accurate measurement and targeting (Finne and Sivonen, 2009). The benefits of customer loyalty are potentially huge. The loyal customer should be viewed in terms of lifetime spending potential. Thus, a customer of VW Audi Group could be viewed as worth €300k rather than the €30k of today’s sales transaction. As Johnston and Clark (2005) put it, loyal customers: ● generate long-term revenue streams (high lifetime values); ● tend to buy more than new customers; ● tend to increase spending over time; ● may be willing to pay premium prices; ● provide cost savings compared with attracting new customers. The logistics challenge is to support the development of customer loyalty by designing and delivering quality of service. Of the three drivers of customer loyalty shown in Figure 2.5, quality of service is ‘essential for excellent market performance on an enduring basis’ (Berry, 1999: 8–9). The rationale for this is that ‘service quality is much more difficult for competitors to copy than are product quality and price’. Supporting product availability through such means as channel selection, market coverage, distribution systems and dealer support all help to nourish customer loyalty. So does logistics support of product characteristics (such as variety or product range) and of marketing initiatives (such as promotions). Service quality Product quality Perceived value Customer loyalty Price Relatively easy for competitors to imitate Figure 2.5 Key drivers of customer loyalty (Source: After Parasuraman and Grewal, 2000) Quality of service 53 2.4.2 Value disciplines Figure 2.5 refers to ‘perceived value’. A development of the service quality–product quality–price model is that of value disciplines. Instead of competing on all of these fronts equally, Treacy and Wiersema (1997) argue that companies taking leadership positions do so by narrowing their competitive focus, not by broadening it. They propose three strategies, or ‘generic value disciplines’ that can be followed: ● Operational excellence. Here, the strategy centres on superb operations and execution, often by providing a reasonable quality at low price. The focus is on efficiency, streamlining operations, supply chain management and everyday low price. Most large international corporations use this discipline. ● Product leadership. Here, the leaders are very strong in innovation and brand marketing and operate in dynamic markets. The focus is on development, innovation, design, time-to-market and high margins in a short timeframe. ‘It was the ability of Apple to innovate in many spaces – getting the music companies to agree to 99 cent pricing, creating wonderful iTunes software, making a terrific physical product, the iPod, that just works in your hand – that gave Steve Jobs his success. It was building an ecosystem of innovation, not just the iPod, that did it’ (http://www.businessweek.com/innovate/NussbaumOnDesign/). ● Customer intimacy. Here, leaders excel in customer attention and customer service. They tailor their products and services towards individual or almost individual customers. The focus is on customer relationship management (next section): they deliver products and services on time and above customer expectations. They also look to lifetime value concepts, reliability and being close to the customer. While most organisations are under pressure to reduce prices, speed up delivery and improve customer service, the best will have a clear focus (page 29) as a key part of their competitive strategy. This focus needs to be improved and adapted over time. Activity 2.3 Evaluate Treacy and Wiersema’s value disciplines based on Porter’s views on differentiating strategies (section 1.4.3). 2.4.3 Relationship marketing and customer relationship management (CRM) A development of customer intimacy is relationship marketing. Here, the aim is to develop long-term, loyal customers through ‘bonding’ with them. This development can take place at three levels (de Chernatony and McDonald, 2003): ● Financial incentives: such as frequent flyer schemes and reward cards. ● Social and financial bonds: from a dentist making personal notes about clients that can be used on subsequent visits to accountants taking their clients to rugby matches. ● Structural bonds: such as IT systems that bind client and customer together, sometimes called ‘electronic handcuffs’. 54 Chapter 2 • Putting the end-customer first This development process becomes a strategic task. The principle behind customer relationship management (CRM) is that marketing strategies are continuously extended in order to strengthen customer loyalty. Eventually, customer and supplier are so closely intertwined that it would be difficult to sever the relationship. In other words, the exit barriers become higher and higher. CRM ‘provides enhanced opportunities to use data and information to both understand customers and co-create value with them. This requires a cross-functional integration of processes, people, logistics and marketing capabilities that is enabled through information, technology and applications’ (Payne and Frow, 2005). Figure 2.6 compares CRM thinking with traditional relationships that are limited to buying and selling functions of the organisations concerned (Payne et al., 1995). We explore the issue of partnerships in the supply chain further in Chapter 9. Case study 2.5, Batman, illustrates the evolution of diamond-type relationships in an industrial setting. Sales Purchasing R#038;D Marketing Logistics Operations Information systems Bow-tie relationship: Limited to sales and buying Information systems Supplier Customer Relationship management Supplier development R#038;D Logistics Information systems Supplier Marketing Diamond relationship: Extended across all functions of both firms Operations Information systems Customer Figure 2.6 Customer relationship management: bow tie and diamond (Source: After Payne et al., 1995) CASE STUDY 2.5 Batman – adding value through quality of service Everglo Battery, the premier battery manufacturer and service provider in South Africa, looked back on the development of its marketing strategy in four stages. Each had been signalled by advancing the concepts of what is meant by ‘quality of service’. Stage 1 had been the basic product: a sealed lead-acid battery for use in mining applications. Batteries were regarded by customers as a mature product and as a ‘grudge buy’. Quality of service 55 Each year, the basic product was under heavy downward price pressure. Stage 2 had been the industry reaction to customer service: the addition of warranty replacement of defective products, of quality assurance (QA) audits of a supplier’s design and manufacturing processes, and of parts and service provision. Stage 3 had recognised the need to go much further in terms of customer service. A whole raft of additional services had been conceived with a view to adding value. Breakdowns were fixed at short notice by means of field service engineers. Everglo products could now be delivered and installed at customer premises. Price lists were simplified by including peripheral equipment, such as contactors, that had to be added to a battery rack in order to make it work. Advice and tips were added to help customers warm to Everglo products. In a proactive move, Everglo introduced charts and advice about the application of battery products in general, and the resulting tables became an industry standard. Parts and service in the field were upgraded to a ‘24-hour, no-nonsense back-up service’. And customer training built on Everglo’s position as an industry leader. Rather than sales seminars, Everglo’s were customer training seminars, where the company spoke on behalf of the industry rather than as a supplier. In spite of having reached a pre-eminent position in mining power supply, Everglo recognised that the centre of Figure 2.7 was in effect a ‘black hole’. Each year, Delivery and installation Field product knowledge Warranty Parts and service Basic product Quality assurance Customer training Features 24-hour, no-nonsense back-up ‘Black box’ that gives power for life Figure 2.7 Adding value by quality of service Charts, advice 56 Chapter 2 • Putting the end-customer first competitors added more services to their basic products too. In effect, the second and to some extent the third circles were being absorbed into the ‘commodity’ category, and customer expectations increased all the time. A new stage 4 strategy was conceived to take Everglo into a position that competitors would find even more difficult to follow. The new strategy was coined ‘Batman’: battery management for life. The aim was nothing less than a total, customer-oriented product management service that provides ‘power for life’. The supplier takes over the task of managing the customer’s assets, including problem identification, training and managing cash flow. The objective of ‘Batman’ is to look at the product the way the customer does, performing best at what the customer values most rather than at what the supplier values most. Questions 1 Has Everglo reached the end of the line in terms of its quality of service strategy? 2 As a competitor to Everglo, what would be your options in response to Everglo’s latest moves? 2.4.4 Measuring service quality Going back to the start of this section, it is helpful to have in place measures of performance of service processes. These can be used to monitor performance over time and to compare (‘benchmark’) the processes with others. Table 2.6 lists exles of service level measures used in retail supply chains. 2.5 Setting priorities for logistics strategy Key issues: How can we segment our market to make it easier to supply? How can we use such knowledge to improve logistics strategy? Setting priorities to assure quality of service leads to establishment of performance measures. Priorities should be used to help ensure that: ● partners in a supply network focus on providing end-customer value; ● partners in that network can see how well the network as a whole is performing against this yardstick. In this way they can judge whether performance is improving or declining, and assess the effect that changes to the system may have on quality of service. In order to set priorities for quality of service, we begin by putting the endcustomer first. The aim is to identify groups of end-customers whose needs can be serviced in focused, targeted ways. The needs define groups and give them an identity, as we explained in section 2.2 on segmentation. Because segments therefore have different characteristics, it is usually a mistake to take a ‘one size fits all’ Setting priorities for logistics strategy 57 Table 2.6 Selected service level measurements in retail supply chains Inventory/availability Physical and accounting correspondence: number of orders with mistakes divided by the total number of orders in the warehouse in the same period of time Stock turnover: quantity delivered or shipped divided by the average stock in the warehouse in the same period of time Stockout: number of orders out of stock divided by the total number of orders placed in the same period of time. Flexibility Flexibility: number of special/urgent/unexpected orders confirmed to the customer divided by the total number of special/urgent/unexpected orders required by the customer multiplied by 100 in the same period of time Service care Punctuality: number of orders delivered on time divided by the total number of orders delivered multiplied by 100 in the same period of time Regularity: number of orders delivered with a nt of delay/advance divided by the total number of orders delivered multiplied by 100 in the same period of time Completeness: number of full orders delivered divided by the total number of orders delivered multiplied by 100 in the same period of time Correctness: number of orders with mistakes dispatched divided by the total number of orders dispatched multiplied by 100 in the same period of time, or Number of codes/articles sent back divided by the total number of codes/articles sent multiplied by 100 in the same period of time Harmfulness: number of damaged orders dispatched in a period divided by the total number of orders dispatched in the same period multiplied by 100 Delay: number of days of delay (or number of days of delay divided by the number of days promised) multiplied by 100 Supply conditions Delivery frequency: number of orders delivered in a certain period of time Shipped quantity: quantity shipped in a certain period of time or quantity dispatched for each shipment Presentation: method of packaging and of shipment, alignment with customer process Lead time Total order cycle time: occurring from the arrival of a customer order to the receipt of goods or cycle time of the single activities (order transmission, order processing, order composition, order transfer to the production plant, article production, warehouse delivery, final delivery to the customer) Response time: to order tracking requests, etc. Marketing Range completeness, information on products and selling assistance Order management Documents management (invoices and orders), client contacts and order advancement state, etc. After sales Speed of response: to back orders, claims management, use assistance and payment management, fulfilment of warranty conditions, etc. e-information Web site completeness, ease of making orders by network and data transmission security, etc. (Source: After Rafele, 2004) 58 Chapter 2 • Putting the end-customer first approach to servicing them. Our research has shown that the starting point for segmentation is often conceived by marketing in isolation, and does not make any sense in logistics terms (Godsell et al., 2006). Logistics is therefore left with an impossible task. Since logistics is actually part of the marketing mix (see ‘place’ under section 2.2 above), ability to provide quality of service is off to a bad start! Our framework for creating logistics advantage (Harrison, 2010), shown in Figure 2.8, therefore starts by reviewing and re-engineering the current approach to market segmentation in a focal firm and its immediate supply chain partners. Typically, this re-engineering takes place in collaboration with strategic suppliers two tiers upstream and strategic customers two tiers downstream. Diagnose current approach to market segmentation Step 1 Step 2 A: Identify key buying behaviours B: Customer value analysis Step 3 Measure logistics strategy drivers Step 4 Specify future approach to market segmentation Figure 2.8 Creating logistics advantage: a four-step process Source: (Harrison, 2010) 2.5.1 Step 1: Diagnose current approach to market segmentation Current approaches to segmentation may drive elements of logistics strategy to a limited extent, or they may have no relevance in logistics terms. Segmentation in the CleanCo case (Case study 2.3) was based on national accounts and field sales, that is, by account size. This was in line with the way that sales and marketing functions were organised. There were no effective links between marketing and logistics – in logistics terms, only the distribution function was differentiated according to channel. Another exle from our research is AutoCo, a manufacturer of automotive seat subassemblies which supplies seat manufacturers such as The Lear Corporation, and automotive assemblers such as BMW. AutoCo currently segments its customers first by the country from which customers purchase, and second by customer within that country. Customer facing teams (CFTs) comprise a sales manager, an engineer and a product designer. These teams deal with each of the segments, and place orders on manufacturing units (based in England, Poland, Norway and Sweden). While this made sense in marketing terms, CFTs were not Setting priorities for logistics strategy 59 coordinated between customer countries. The supply network was therefore fragmented, and manufacturing units were left to compete with each other for business. 2.5.2 Step 2a: Understand buying behaviour The sales organisation in the CleanCo case (Case study 2.3) had identified two significant types of buying behaviour by its retail customers: volume driven and value driven. ● volume-driven behaviour is driven by the retailers who want to offer low prices to end-customers in order to drive high volumes. The EDLP variant of this behaviour places pressure on supply partners such as CleanCo for continuous price reduction. In turn, this generates a relatively stable demand pattern for the supply chain – unlike a retailer who regularly promotes the same product by means of special offers. ● margin-driven behaviour is driven by offering a wide selection of products and value adding services. Cost savings were not necessarily passed on to the customer but could be used to invest in additional value adding activities. This strategy also resulted in a relatively stable demand pattern. Other behaviours by retailers are also possible – such as discounting and promotion. But the key point is that the different behaviours must be characterised and specified in terms of their logistics implications, along the lines of Table 1.1. Using order winners and qualifiers helps to bridge marketing and logistics perspectives. While there are dangers in a ‘one size fits all’ logistics strategy (low cost but low service) in the same way that there are dangers in over-customisation (high cost and complexity), the compromise solution is to specify three or four substantive segments (Gattorna, 2006). Discussing the characteristics of customer behaviour within a cross-functional group in a workshop setting helps to spawn ideas on patterns. It is often easier to make sense of the data if they are used to plot graphs and charts. Venn diagrams such as the one shown in Figure 2.9 are helpful to illustrate patterns that may appear among the analysed data. On-time delivery Minimum cost Intensive technical support Figure 2.9 Analysing the influence of demand characteristics 60 Chapter 2 • Putting the end-customer first 2.5.3 Step 2b: Customer value analysis Customer value is the customer-perceived benefit gained from a product/service compared with the cost of purchase. In order to measure customer value, we need to understand what aspects of a product or service a customer values (Johnson and Scholes, 2008). Here, we are primarily interested in aspects of customer value which impact on logistics strategy. Three aspects in particular relate to buying behaviours: ● demand profile: the characteristics of demand in terms of volume and variety, and of demand variability and uncertainty (section 2.3); ● competitive profile: how the focal firm chooses to compete in the marketplace (section 1.3); ● product profile: the extent to which the product is customised to specific customer requirements. Customer value is assessed by means of a questionnaire to measure customer views of these aspects in terms of: ● importance (on a 0–100 scale); ● performance of the focal firm and a key competitor (0–5 Lickert scale); ● price level of the focal firm relative to the key competitor (0–5 Lickert scale). Exles of customer value profiles for two customers of AutoCo (referred to in step 1 above) are shown in Figure 2.10 We return to the concept of ‘value’ in Chapter 3. Meanwhile, we will continue to use the AutoCo exle to illustrate steps 3 and 4. 2.5.4 Step 3: Measure logistics strategy drivers Here, we examine demand profile and competitive profile as drivers of logistics strategy (based on Godsell et al., 2006): ● Demand profile. The time that the customer is prepared to wait to have his or her order fulfilled is defined as ‘D time’, which is further explored in section 5.2. D time may be measured in time-related measures from months to seconds. Essentially, this sets time objectives for the supply chain. Response in seconds means that there is no time to procure materials or to process them. Therefore, inventories of finished product are inevitable. However, as D times reduce in turbulent markets, holding inventories becomes an increasingly risky option, and in turn places increasing pressure onto supply capabilities. A focal firm may decide to respond to such pressure by reducing the range on offer, and by increasing the commonality of parts between different skus. At the other end of the scale, if the customer is prepared to wait for a long enough period to enable design and procurement processes to be completed, a relatively high level of customisation may be possible. Forecast error (section 2.3) ties in with the logistics need to align mid- to longer-term capacity decisions with demand. In Chapter 5, we argue that reducing the total supply chain throughput time (P time) reduces the need to rely on forecasts. But clearly there is a limit to how far this ideal can be pushed. Being able to respond immediately to actual demand means that logistics Setting priorities for logistics strategy 61 AutoCo customer A: high volumes, short lead times Coping with demand uncertainty and short order lead times are most important 5 Performance level 4 3 2 1 Delivery frequency Demand variety Product innovation Product quality Product features Product customisation Demand volume Delivery reliability Order lead time Demand uncertainty 0 Importance Most Least AutoCo customer B: uncertain demand, lower volumes Product quality and delivery reliability are most important 5 Performance level 4 3 2 1 Product innovation Product features Order lead time Demand variety Product customisation Delivery frequency Demand volume Demand uncertainty Delivery reliability Product quality 0 Importance Most Figure 2.10 Least Customer segmentation using order winners 62 Chapter 2 • Putting the end-customer first capabilities have been put in place to do so. In particular, it is still necessary to make mid- to longer-term forecasts – for exle to allow for advanced orders to suppliers, long cycle time production processes and to expand facilities. It is also tough in logistics terms to support high levels of volume variation of demand across a given time period in a given supply chain. Constraints such as capacity limitations and fixed order quantities and lead times inhibit what may be done. Building buffer capacity into the supply chain (in the form of inventories or spare production capacity) may be too costly. Instead, it helps to analyse the causes of volume variation. Two main factors are the differences between peaks and troughs of demand, and the frequency with which peaks and troughs occur. A standard seasonal pattern may have just one peak (summer for garden furniture, for exle), whereas fashion industries may have six seasons or more. Retail promotions may create peaks every other week, which lead to volume variations of 60 to 70 per cent of ‘normal’ demand. Figure 2.11 shows how demand characteristics can be analysed. ● Competitive profile. This is based on the competitive factors we introduced in section 1.3 – hard objectives (quality, time and cost), supporting capabilities (controlling variability, dealing with uncertainty in logistics processes and sustainability) and soft objectives (such as confidence and security). For exle, Ford chooses to compete on low price and delivery speed (by making to stock), while BMW chooses to compete by making more expensive and highly specified cars to customer order while the customer waits. While they also appear in the demand profile as characteristics, we refer here to variability and uncertainty in terms of a focal firm’s capability to cope with them better than competition. D times High Low Months Weeks Days Hours Minutes Seconds Forecast accuracy High Low 90% forecast accuracy 50% forecast accuracy Volume uncertainty Low High Low peaks/troughs, limited occurrence Figure 2.11 Customer value profiles for two AutoCo customers Source: (Harrison, 2010) High peaks/troughs, frequent Setting priorities for logistics strategy 63 ● Product profile. Determining the level of customisation requires analysis at two levels. First, the proportion of products and sourced components that are customised is measured for each sku supplied to the final process in the supply chain (e.g. retailer or distributor). This analysis can result in the categorisation of skus on the basis of levels of customisation: high, medium and low. Second, we need to understand which processes or components are customised and where they are positioned in the supply chain. For high levels of customisation, particularly where it occurs early in the supply chain, the complexity that is caused may be reduced in two ways. The relevance to customers may be questioned – is this extra variety giving value to the end-customer? Or, different options could be built in as standard. While some redundancy is created, greater standardisation of supply chain processes and shorter lead times are gained. All three of these profiles have profound implications for logistics strategy, some of the key implications for which are summarised in Figure 2.12. Logistics strategy drivers Demand profile • volume • variety • demand variation • demand uncertainty Competitive profile • hard objectives • supporting capabilities • soft objectives Product profile • customisation v standardisation Figure 2.12 Implications for logistics strategy Buffers in the supply chain: • amount and position of excess capacity • amount and position of inventory • how long the customer waits How much of the supply chain is customer order driven? • which processes are speculative? • which processes are order driven? How is material controlled? • centralised planning and control • decentralised planning and control Strategy drivers and their implications for logistics strategy For exle, the higher the demand variability and uncertainty, the greater the need for buffers. Buffers can be in the form of spare capacity, inventory and order lead times. If we want to shorten the time the customer has to wait, then it is necessary to make speculatively – perhaps finishing off (customising) the product once the final order details are known. Finally, planning and controlling the flow of materials across the supply chain needs to be carried out centrally, when in high demand variability and uncertainty conditions in order to coordinate the response of supply partners. In more stable demand conditions, it is possible to relax controls and allow more local flexibility. 2.5.5 Step 4: Specify future approach to market segmentation Using logistics strategy drivers it is now possible to revisit the customer value profiles in Figure 2.11 and develop a fresh approach to segmentation that makes sense in logistics terms. In Figure 2.13, the two customers (A and B) in Figure 2.11 are analysed in terms of their key demand and competitive profiles. Customers A and B both want 100 per cent on time – in full – on quality delivery. However, 64 Chapter 2 • Putting the end-customer first Competitive profile Demand profile More efficient Variety L Demand variability L Demand uncertainty L Volume H Delivery reliability L Order lead time L* Product customisation L Delivery frequency H Product quality L Product innovation L Figure 2.13 Approximate average for AutoCo 9sku More responsive 18sku H H 1 car 17,760 3 cars H 4,524 Customer A Customer B L 2–4 day Key: 1 day H S H = high L = low S = short L* = long H 4/5 per week 1/2 per week L 25PPM H H Strategy drivers and their implications for segmentation Source: (Harrison, 2010) customer A places priority on higher volumes on shorter delivery lead times with higher delivery frequencies. Customer B places priority on AutoCo’s capability to meet uncertain demand, and on higher levels of customisation. It is now possible to describe the segments typified by customers A and B in terms of: ● buying behaviour relevant to logistics strategy; ● customer-perceived value; ● profile of logistics strategy drivers. All other major customers at AutoCo then need to be evaluated in similar terms so that an overall segmentation strategy for the focal firm can be developed and refined. As indicated earlier, the aim is to develop a ‘compromise’ strategy that – like segmentation itself – seeks to describe logistics strategy ‘as simply as possible while doing our best to emphasise its variety’ (Millier and Palmer, 2000). Case study 2.6 gives you an opportunity to try out these concepts in the setting of a food supply chain. CASE STUDY 2.6 Bacalao – two supply chains for two markets Bacalao is fish that has been salted and dried, traditionally in the open air on rocks; today it is done in a drier. It has been produced in Norway since about 1640, can be kept refrigerated for several years, and is said to improve over time. It has developed a strong position in the food cultures of many Latin countries – such as Brazil, the Dominican Republic and Portugal – where consumers often follow the Catholic tradition of eating more fish on Fridays and in the run-up to Easter. Marketing over many years has created the association with Norway as ‘the land of bacalao’, or ‘bacalhau da Noruega’ as it is called. It is a matter of great pride among consumers to master a variety of recipes for serving bacalao. The overall supply chain is illustrated in Figure 2.14. It takes at least four weeks to make the end product. The best fish is wild and taken by line, but trawled fish is also Transport Store Store Source: Jahre and Refsland-Fougner, 2005 Defrost Transport Store Wash The overall supply chain for bacalao Outbound logistics/distribution Agent or supermarket Frozen Fresh Salted Salt fish facilities Figure 2.14 Endcustomer Line trawl net Wash Catch/Purchase/Inbound Logistics Sort and pack for transport– cardboard and pallets Remove head Processing Store at room temp. to moisten Layer with salt Processing 1 week + storage for drying 3 weeks storage for salting Manually place in drying stands Wash 24 hrs, drain Setting priorities for logistics strategy 65 66 Chapter 2 • Putting the end-customer first good, while nets give the lowest quality because the fish can be dead for a while before being hauled up. Today, the fish is increasingly farmed as well. The raw material is the major cost item: prices are set by the Råfiskelaget (the Norwegian raw fish association). Prices can vary a lot – for exle from NOK 26/kg to NOK 15/kg within a year. Electricity and insurance are the other two major cost items. The fish is slaughtered (and bled on boat for the best quality), then matured in salt for two to three weeks. After salting it is dried, sorted, packed and distributed. There are no reliable ways of measuring salt and water content, so manual methods of touching and feeling the fish during each stage are used to ensure consistent quality and weight. Bacalao is mainly produced from cod, which is preferred by Portuguese customers. But consumers in the Dominican Republic prefer pollock, which is a darker-fleshed fish that is more abundant in the North Atlantic. Cod is up to three times more expensive than pollock. The Norwegian fish industry is highly fragmented, with many smallscale fish farmers, fishermen and producers. Marketing activities are coordinated by the Norwegian Seafood Export Council. Consumers are very quality conscious when buying bacalao. Quality is determined by colour, texture and firmness, as well as water content and size. Portuguese consumers prefer smaller cod around 2.5 kilos, while consumers in the Dominican Republic are less concerned with size. Note that quality here refers to grade of fish rather than to conformance quality: both grades are fit for purpose in the markets they serve. Bacalhau da Noruega Company Noruega (CN) company has 150 employees, and built its bacalao production facility in 1997 in the port of Ålesund – which has one of the largest harbours in Norway and one of the most modern fishing fleets in Europe. The company focuses on volume in order to benefit from the economies of scale. Production is stabilised through the year by ensuring a stable supply of fish through sourcing a combination of frozen and fresh fish, creating a buffer of some three to four months supply. The company only trades in full truckloads, which are distributed via Hamburg or Rotterdam. Product is sold under the generic brand name of Bacalao da Noruega in standard transport packaging. While CN serves most Latin markets, 80 per cent of its sales go to the Dominican Republic as pollock bacalao. This market is relatively stable throughout the year, which matches CN’s stable production policy. CN is experimenting with pollock farming further to improve supply reliability. Bacalao Superior Company Superior (CS) is also based in the Ålesund area, and accounts for 15–20 per cent of Norwegian bacalao exports to Portugal. Only cod bacalao is exported to this market, which commands a 10–15 per cent price premium over other Norwegian bacalao. The product is popular with consumers, which creates a strong relationship with the single supermarket chain that sells it. Fish are sold whole, with a CS tag showing guarantee of origin from fresh Norwegian cod, which was an idea that came from the supermarket customer. This ensures that CS bacalao stands out from other offerings. Joint marketing caigns are funded by both CS and its supermarket customer, and include TV promotions. Only fresh cod is used in bacalao superior, caught by the coastal fleet in small boats. Supply is heavily dependent during the winter on quotas that are Setting priorities for logistics strategy 67 permitted in the famous Lofoten fishing field in the far north. CS buys from three fresh cod suppliers, and from 15–20 suppliers of salt fish. Processing follows traditional routes, but some technology has been introduced into cutting and drying. Finished product is transported to Portugal in 22-tonne truck loads three times per week. Storage of finished product is in Lisbon at the customer’s warehouse. Comparing da Noruega and superior Table 2.7 summarises some of the major differences between these two products. Table 2.7 Comparing da Noruega and superior Characteristic da Noruega (Dominican Rep) Raw material ● ● ● ● ● Production process ● High volume ● Single facility ● All types of fish processed in a single Fresh/frozen pollock Different sizes Line/trawl/net/farm Continuous supply 3–4 months inbound stocks factory: more efficient Marketing Superior (Portugal) ● ● ● ● ● Fresh cod, some salted Size specific Mostly line Seasonal supply Small inbound stock ● Customised ● Many dedicated facilities ● Cod only in single, focused factory ● Undifferentiated packaging ● Fish individually tagged ● Continuous consumption ● Generic marketing through Seafood ● Special occasions ● Joint promotion with Export Council ● Low price ● Generic packaging ● Little differentiation supermarket customer ● Premium price ● Tragged to show origin ● Differentiated by market CN accepts more variation in its raw material source to enable continuous supply. This applies to type of fish as well as where and how it is caught. Farming and a healthy stock of frozen fish help to reduce further supply variations. On the other hand, CS seeks the best quality with minimum variation. The only inbound stock that is permitted is small quantities of salted cod. While the raw materials and end-product have many similarities, there are substantial differences in inbound and outbound logistics as well as processing and distribution strategies. These differences are fundamental to the need to support the brand (raising consumer expectations) by means of logistics strategy (meeting consumer expectations). We can conclude as follows: ● ● Two fundamentally different inbound strategies: CN focuses on secure, continuous supply and accepts greater variation in terms of type of fish, where and how caught – so farming is encouraged. They buffer and store extensively. CS goes for consistently high quality by not accepting much by way of variation: size, line catching and location are all important requirements. They do not store fresh fish or use frozen. Internally consistent marketing and logistics: CN matches the low price, continuous availability marketing mix by means of efficient sourcing and continuous availability, and of ‘lean’ (see Chapter 6) production and distribution methods. This enables 68 Chapter 2 • Putting the end-customer first high and consistent production volumes supported by a flexible product mix. There is less to go wrong in terms of supply, but the generic nature of the product militates against better margins or customer loyalty. CS matches the high price, seasonal availability marketing mix by means of highly selective sourcing and by focused factory production that is seasonal and relatively inefficient. Production is possible only when high-quality, line-caught fresh fish are available. Limited and sporadic availability mean that the product has to reassert itself following supply interruptions, so the marketing pull must be consistent and strong. Traceability through tagging reinforces the superior quality image in consumers’ minds, supported by joint marketing with the major retail customer. The way that the two supply chains have evolved illustrates the tradeoffs at stake: more of one thing means less of another. The CS supply chain has become focused on top quality (grade) product, but at relatively high cost and sporadic availability. The CN supply chain has become focused on the opposite: low cost and continuous availability, but at average quality (grade). Sources: Jahre and Refsland Fougner, 2005; Harrison, 2010 Question 1 Using Figures 2.12 and 2.13, summarise the key strategy drivers for products from CN and CS as far as you can with the information given in the case. Summary What is customer service in the context of logistics? ● Marketing is defined as ‘the activity, set of institutions, and processes for creating, communicating, delivering, and exchanging offerings that have value for customers, partners and society at large’. Loyal customers are seen as the source of profit, growth and security. Marketing in practice starts with analysing segments, evaluating those segments and targeting them. Segments need to be measurable, economically viable, accessible and actionable. Marketing in practice continues by market positioning, which requires differential advantage to be defined, and the marketing mix to be formulated. ● The key logistics contribution to the marketing mix is in the ‘fourth P’, place. This includes decisions about factors such as channel selection, market coverage, distribution systems and dealer support. Logistics also supports product decisions (for exle, product range) and promotion activity. ● An important logistics contribution to putting the end-customer first is to forecast demand. This can be undertaken using judgemental forecasting (where no demand history exists) or by causal forecasting (where historical data are available). ● Business to business (B2B) refers to upstream relationships between members of a network. Business to customer (B2C) refers to handover to the endcustomer. B2B relationships therefore need to be aligned towards B2C. Discussion questions 69 ● Supply networks end with service processes, where the end-customer is present in some way. ‘Gaps’ can emerge between what the service is supposed to be, what the customer expects it to be, and how the customer perceives it when it is delivered. The size of these gaps has implications for quality of service, a major driver of customer loyalty. How do we win and retain customers through logistics? ● The principle here is that loyal customers have many advantages over new ones. The logistics challenge is to reinforce loyalty by exceeding customer expectations via superior quality of service. ● Customer relationship management is based on the principle that marketing strategies should be continuously extended to strengthen customer loyalty. Phases of logistics development are needed, each phase placing increasing demands on the development of logistics capabilities. ● Setting logistics priorities should be carried out with market segments in mind. This is a joint task between marketing and logistics functions. Order winners and qualifiers by segment help develop a common language to assist this task. ● Often, the current approach to segmentation is unsatisfactory in logistics terms. We present a four-step model to diagnose the current approach, and to re-engineer that approach using the concept of logistics strategy drivers (demand profile and competitive profile). Discussion questions 1 suggest ways in which logistics can play a part in the marketing mix for: a a manufacturer of cleaning products like CleanCo (Case study 2.4); b a retailer such as Tesco (Case study 1.1); c an automotive repair and recovery firm such as Talleres Auto (Case study 1.6); d food suppliers such as CN and CS (Case study 2.6). In each case, specify the organisation you have in mind and explain the reasons for your suggestions. 2 The ‘Batman’ case (Case study 2.5) presents what might be described as a ‘marketing wish list’. Analyse the likely logistics challenges at each stage of development, and suggest how these might be addressed. 3 While top companies such as IBM and Tesco say that the customer is king, will customer choice continue to be unrestrained in a) 2020 and b) 2050? Explain your thinking in each future state scenario. 4 Explain what is meant by uncertainty in demand forecasting. The barbecue sauce focal firm described in section 2.3 has manufacturing facilities in the Netherlands which are described as ‘high on quality and reliability, but low on responsiveness’. In order to maximise production efficiency, large batches of each flavour are made so that process cleanouts (each lasting ! four hours) are kept to a minimum. After manufacturing, each batch of a given flavour is transported to an CHAPTER 1 Logistics and the supply chain Objectives The intended objectives of this chapter are to: ● identify and explain logistics definitions and concepts that are relevant to managing the supply chain; ● identify how supply chains compete in terms of time, cost, quality and sustainability. Also, how there are supportive capabilities and soft objectives; ● show how different supply chains may adopt different and distinctive strategies for competing in the marketplace. By the end of this chapter you should be able to understand: ● how supply chains are structured; ● different ways in which supply chains may choose to compete in the marketplace; ● the need to align supply chain capabilities with competitive priorities. Introduction It only takes only 17 hours or so to assemble a car, and a couple more days are needed to ship it to the customer via the dealers. So why does it take more than a month for a manufacturer to make and deliver the car I want? And why are the products I want to buy so often unavailable on the shelf at the local supermarket? These are questions that go to the heart of logistics management and strategy. Supply chains today are slow and costly in relation to what they will be like in the future. But let us start at the beginning, by thinking about logistics and the supply chain in terms of what they are trying to do. It is easy to get bogged down in the complexities of how a supply chain actually works (and very few people actually know how a whole supply chain works). We shall address many of those details later in this book. First, let us focus on how a supply chain competes, and on what the implications are for logistics management and strategy. The overall aim of this chapter is to provide an introduction to logistics and set the scene for the book as a whole. The need is to look outside the individual organisation and to consider how it aligns with other organisations in a given 4 Chapter 1 • Logistics and the supply chain supply chain. This is both a strategic and a managerial task: strategic, because it requires long-term decisions about how logistics will be structured and the systems it will use; managerial, because it encompasses decisions about sourcing, making and delivering products and services within an overall ‘game plan’. Key issues This chapter addresses four key issues: 1 Logistics and the supply chain: definitions, structure, tiering. 2 Material flow and information flow: the supply chain and the demand chain. 3 Competing through logistics: competitive criteria in the marketplace. 4 Logistics strategies: aligning capabilities across the supply chain. 1.1 Logistics and the supply chain Key issues: What is the supply chain, and how is it structured? What is the purpose of a supply chain? Logistics is a big word for a big challenge. Let us begin by giving an exle of that challenge in practice, because that is where logistics starts and ends. CASE STUDY 1.1 Tesco Tesco is the UK’s largest food retailer, with a Group sales turnover of more than €67 billion. It has over 2,100 stores in the US, central Europe, Ireland and the Far East, and over 2,300 in the UK alone. This number has increased rapidly as Tesco entered the convenience store market with its Tesco Express store format. The product range held by the stores has grown rapidly in recent years – a larger store can hold up to 20,000 products – as Tesco broadens its presence in the ‘non-food’ market for electrical goods, stationery, clothing and the like. This massive range is supported by thousands of suppliers, who are expected to meet agreed service levels (correct time and quantities) by delivering to Tesco within specific time ‘windows’. Volumes are impressive. In a year, some 2.1 billion cases of product are shipped from suppliers to the stores. Mindful of its responsibilities, Tesco is the UK’s market leader in the use of bio fuels and works hard to reduce its CO2 emissions per case delivered, through initiatives including rail, barge and alternative fuels. The company also buys considerable numbers of double-deck trailers to move more cases per trip. Tesco states that its core purpose is ‘to create value for customers to earn their lifetime loyalty’. A wide product range and high on-shelf availability across that range are key enablers of that core purpose. So how do you maintain high availability of so many product lines in so many stores? This question goes to the heart of logistics management for such a vast organisation. Logistics is about material flow, and about information flow. Let us look at how Tesco deals with each of these in turn. An early reform for supermarket operation was to have suppliers deliver to a depot rather than to every store. During the 1980s, distribution to retail stores was handled by Logistics and the supply chain 26 depots. These operated on a single-temperature basis, and were small and relatively inefficient. Delivery volumes to each store were also relatively low, and it was not economic to deliver to all stores each day. Goods that required temperature-controlled environments had to be carried on separate vehicles. Each product group had different ordering systems. The network of depots simply could not handle the growth in volumes and the increasingly high standards of temperature control. A new distribution strategy was needed. Many small depots with limited temperature control facilities were replaced by Fresh Food depots which can handle many products at several temperature ranges. The opportunity is to provide a cost-effective daily delivery service to all stores. Typically, a Fresh Food depot can handle over 80 million cases per year on a 40-acre site. The warehouse building comprises 36,000 square metres divided into three temperature zones: !25°C (frozen), 1°C (chilled) and 12°C (semi-ambient). Each depot serves a group of between 48 and 335 retail stores. Delivery vehicles for Fresh Food depots use insulated trailers divided into chambers by means of movable bulkheads so they can operate at different temperatures. Deliveries are made at agreed, scheduled times. Grocery and Non-Food goods such as cans and clothing are delivered separately. So much for the method of transporting goods from supplier through to the stores, but how much should be sent to each store? With such a huge product range today, it is impossible for the individual store to reorder across the whole range (store-based ordering). Instead, sales of each product line are tracked continuously through the till by means of electronic point of sale (EPOS) systems. As a customer’s purchases are scanned through the bar code reader at the till, the sale is automatically recorded for each stock-keeping unit (sku). Cumulative sales are updated every four hours on Tesco Information Exchange (TIE). This is a system based on internet technology that allows Tesco and its suppliers to communicate trading information. The aim of improved communication is to reduce response times from manufacturer to stores and to ensure product availability on the shelf. Among other things, TIE aims to improve processes for introducing new products and promotions, and to monitor service levels. Based on cumulative sales, Tesco places orders with its suppliers by means of electronic data interchange (EDI). As volumes and product ranges increased during the 1990s, food retailers such as Tesco aimed to de-stock their depots by ordering only what was needed to meet tomorrow’s forecast sales. For fast-moving products such as types of cheese and washing powders, the aim is day 1 for day 2: that is, to order today what is needed for tomorrow. For fast-moving products, the aim is to pick to zero in the depot: no stock is left after store orders have been fulfilled. This means that the same space in the depot can be used several times over. Deliveries to stores are made in two waves, at specific times and within defined windows. This helps to improve product availability at stores throughout the day, and thus support changes in demand. Updated by Joe Thomas (Tesco) 2010 Questions 1 Describe the key logistics processes at Tesco. 2 What do you think are the main logistics challenges in running the Tesco operation? 5 6 Chapter 1 • Logistics and the supply chain So why is Tesco growing in an intensely competitive market? It describes its core purpose as being ‘to create value for customers to earn their lifetime loyalty’. Loyalty is an important term that we return to in the next chapter. In order to achieve loyalty, Tesco has to understand customer needs and how they can be served. Its products must be recognised by its customers as representing outstanding value for money. To support such goals, it must ensure that the products that its customers want are available on the shelf at each of its stores at all times, day and night. Logistics is the task of planning and controlling the purchase and distribution of Tesco’s massive product range from suppliers to stores. Logistics is concerned with managing two key flows: ● material flow of the physical goods from suppliers through the distribution centres to stores; ● information flow of demand data from the end-customer back to purchasing and to suppliers, and supply data from suppliers to the retailer, so that material flow can be accurately planned and controlled. The logistics task of managing material flow and information flow is a key part of the overall task of supply chain management. Supply chain management is concerned with managing the entire chain of processes, including raw material supply, manufacture, packaging and distribution to the end-customer. The Tesco UK supply chain structure comprises three main functions: ● distribution: the operations and support task of managing Tesco’s di…
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