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Week 1 Revised Literature Review Criteria Literature review analyzes 5 The submission is and synthesizes scholarly detailed and focused sources relevant to the strongly on analysis and Action Research Question. synthesis rather that summarization. The Literature Review 3 The literature review is exceeds 7 pages and is well past the 7 page mark showing significant and is the length of a final, progress toward the 8-10 complete submission. page minimum for the final literature review. The Literature Review 3 The literature review is exceeds 7 sources and is well past the 7 source mark showing significant and is the needed 12-15 of progress toward the 12 to a final, complete 15 source minimum for the submission. final Literature Review. Mechanics (spelling, 3 Mechanics (spelling, grammar, and punctuation) grammar, and punctuation) are flawless. are flawless. The Literature Review is well organized, scholarly, and well-written. The Literature Review includes a reference page. The sources are cited and referenced using appropriate APA style and format. 3 The Literature Review is an exemplar of the quality desired in a scholarly review of the relevant research literature. 3 The Literature Review includes a reference page. The sources are cited and referenced using appropriate APA style and format. 4 The submission is primarily synthesis but there is still room to work on the level of analysis that is present. 2 The literature review is at or exceeds seven pages. 3 the submission is making progress in moving from summary to analysis and synthesis but there is still much work to be done. 1 The literature review needs additional work to meet the 7 page mark. 2 Few to no changes made to update the literature review from 601. 0 Assignment not submitted 0 The literature review was not submitted or does not include at least five pages. 0 2 The literature review is at or exceeds seven sources. 1 The literature review needs additional work to meet the 7 source mark. 0 The literature review was not submitted or does not include at least five sources. 0 2 Mechanics (spelling, grammar, and punctuation) include 1-2 minor errors. 1 Mechanics (spelling, grammar, and punctuation) include 3-4 errors. 0 2 The Literature Review is well organized, scholarly, and well-written. 1 The Literature Review needs some additional development for clarity of writing and organization. 0 Mechanics (spelling, grammar, and punctuation) errors are extensive. 0 The literature review needs significant development for clarity and organization. 2 The Literature Review includes a reference page. The sources are cited and referenced using appropriate APA style and format with 1-2 minor errors. 1 The Literature Review includes a reference page. The sources are cited and referenced using appropriate APA style and format with 3-4 errors. 0 The Literature Review either does not include a reference page or includes one with many significant APA errors in formatting. 0 0 Running head: PARENTAL INVOLVEMENT IN EARLY ACQUISITION OF LITERACY 1 Parental Involvement in Early Acquisition of Literacy Xavier Boatright Concordia University Portland 1 PARENTAL INVOLVEMENT IN EARLY ACQUISITION OF LITERACY 2 Literature Review Introduction The impact of parent involvement in the literacy development process has been investigated for a period exceeding fifty years. Many national education programs recommend the participation of parents in the academic learning process of their children, which has created a huge concern for school administrators and teachers (Berthelsen #038; Walker, 2008). Most studies have evidenced a high correlation between parent and children’s academic performance, social welfare, and emotional welfare. Furthermore, the studies depict the nature of the parentchild relationship as a critical determinant for student’s academic success. Psychologists show that children require quality instructions, motivation, and psychological support in their academic development. The significance of parent involvement in the academic development of children has been assessed with valid and reliable measurement instruments to increase the 2 accuracy of results. 3 4 Ecological Systems Theory Bronfenbrenner’s Ecological Systems Theory explains the correlation between parentchild relationship and academic performance. The Ecological Systems Theory was developed by Urie Bronfenbrenner, an American psychologist, to explain how environments influence the cognitive development of children (Darling, 2007). Bronfenbrenner places children at the center of ecological systems. Such a system has five different zones: microsystem (immediate environment), mesosystem (connections), exosystem (indirect environment), macrosystem (cultural and social values), and chronosystem (changes occurring over time). Thus, schools and family environments fall within the microsystem, which is the immediate environment interacting with children. Interaction with the elements of the microsystem within the Ecological PARENTAL INVOLVEMENT IN EARLY ACQUISITION OF LITERACY Systems Model involves their individual relationships with caregivers, teachers, classmates, and family members. Bronfenbrenner observes that the nature of microsystems affects the cognitive development of children. Considering that the family is the most immediate environment for children, the support and nurturing of children creates a positive academic development in children. Home Literacy Environments The home literacy microsystem consists of resources, attitudes, and literacy-based experiences to support learning among children. Parents support literacy development in young children by reading storybooks together, which promotes the development of children’s cognitive, language, and reading skills. Further studies have shown that parents can also use other sources in teaching their children, including newspapers, magazines, and books. Furthermore, literacy development support for children at this stage of life can also include writing and drawing activities. Reciting rhymes, playing games, and singing activities at home promotes language and literacy development of children. Naturally, parent-child interaction is supposed to act as the first learning platform, which can also be extended to academic development. Parental Involvement Determinants Bronfenbrenner observes that children spend most of their time within family environments. Interaction with parents, therefore, create academic learning opportunities for children in cases where they are shown support and encouragement. Parental involvement in the academic development of children starts typically at home, where parents create a healthy and safe environment for the learning process. Parents also guide children in the development of a 3 PARENTAL INVOLVEMENT IN EARLY ACQUISITION OF LITERACY 4 positive attitude towards academic achievement through the alignment of individual goals and their desires (Grolnick #038; Slowiaczek, 1994). Parents can accomplish this objective by enlightening children about the satisfaction derived from academic achievements. Parental involvement in children’s academics in their early stages occurs as a social process. Williams and Sánchez (2013) observe that socialization between parents and their children influences the level of their performance in academics (Williams, #038; Sánchez, 2013). The researchers also note that parents extend the social interaction with their children to academics because of three reasons: parental aspirations, perception regarding school, and parenting self-efficacy. Firstly, parental aspirations occur as goals and idealistic hopes that parents develop regarding future accomplishments. Thus, parents with high aspirations for their children’s future success work hard to accomplish their goals. The involvement in the literacy development of their children occurs as an effective way of achieving their future aspirations. Research evidence suggests that the accomplishment of occupational and educational goals depends on parental involvement in the shaping of children’s learning environment, behaviors, time, and activities (Cherry, 2011).Secondly, perception regarding the school can motivate a parent’s participation in the literacy development of a child. Parents, in this case, recognize that they have a responsibility of supporting their children in the acquisition of literacy. Parents with this above-mentioned mindset offer support to their children in their studies at school and home. Children’s academic performance increases with the increase in the increment in the level of parents in their academics (Cherry, 2011). Parents sometimes embark on studies to improve their capacity in supporting the literacy development of children effectively. Parents, for exle, maintain records of the children academic progress to ensure the alignment of their involvement strategies with their goals. Today, parents track academic performance progress of children using Graphic PARENTAL INVOLVEMENT IN EARLY ACQUISITION OF LITERACY 5 data charts to determine their abilities and talents effectively. In most cases, parents set high expectations to facilitate elevation of participation standards in children’s learning activities. Thirdly, parenting self-efficacy refers to the parent’s confidence with regards to their efficacy in enabling students to accomplish their academic goals. Bandura’s theory of selfefficacy indicates that individuals are capable of executing and organizing their actions to facilitate the management of specific situations. According to Cherry (2011), self-efficacy occurs as individuals’ beliefs that they can accomplish their goals in any situation (Cherry, 2011). Studies conducted in Western societies indicate that high self-efficacy in parents makes them authoritative, consistent, and highly optimistic about the effectiveness of their involvement in children’s academics. Parents with high self-efficacy are convinced that their skills and knowledge can enable them to support their children effectively in academics. High self-efficacy increases the likelihood of parents to scrutinize and monitor the progress of children in academics. 5 Teacher-parent Collaboration The efficiency of parents’ involvement in the literacy development of their children can be increased through their collaboration with teachers. Teachers and schools’ administrations are encouraged to offer parents opportunities for participation in the literacy development of their children. Schools promote parent involvement in their literacy development for their children through the provision of progress reports and teacher-parent meetings (Emeagwali, 2009). School administration can also involve parents in the school programs design, which offers them opportunities to acquire knowledge regarding support for their children in academics. Educators, in this case, should recognize that parent involvement can boost a student’s performance. A collaborative process between teachers and parents acts as an effective strategy of maximizing PARENTAL INVOLVEMENT IN EARLY ACQUISITION OF LITERACY 6 classroom attendance, grades and test scores, motivation, and homework completion rates (Hornby, 2011). A two-way communication channel supports Parent-teacher collaboration. Twoway communication between teachers and parents facilitate the sharing of academic performance information regarding a child. Researchers observe that communication between teachers and parents should be positive, consistent, and transparent. 6 Benefits of Parental Involvement in Student’s academics Parents significantly influence student performance in academics. Studies conducted in the last twenty years indicate a strong correlation between parental involvement and early childhood academic performance. The studies have established a connection between literacy enriched family environments and literacy skills acquisition in children (Lee #038; Bowen, 2006). In a study conducted by Lee and Bowen (2006), parent participation in their children’s school works increases their literacy levels. Furthermore, a survey conducted by Flynn in 2007 kindergarten children who receive support at home performs better at school compared to their colleagues with minimal parental help. Notably, some factors may inhibit parent’s involvement in a child’s academics, including poor work-life balance or tight work schedules (Flynn, 2007). Tight work schedules make it hard for parents to divide the available time between their children and work. Parents who do night-shifts, for exle, may fail to assist their children in doing their homework. Huge geographical distances may sometimes hinder parents from attending school events and activities related to the improvement of the children’s welfare. Sometimes, illiteracy among parents may prevent them from helping their children complete their assignments and homework. The constraints for parental involvement in children’s academics explain why students may fail to accomplish equal support in their school works. Additionally, children’s difference in early literacy levels is determined by the quantity and quality of communication PARENTAL INVOLVEMENT IN EARLY ACQUISITION OF LITERACY with parents at home. Exposure of children to the high quantity and quality interactions during their interaction with their parents increases their literacy skills. Children with a high degree of exposure to print materials at home perform better in elementary schools than their colleagues 9 with little or no exposure to these materials. Conclusion Parents significantly influence early literacy skills acquisition among children. Parental involvement in children’s academics involves performance monitoring and support in learning activities, for exle, drawing, reading, writing, and singing. Notably, parents can support children in doing their homework and read for them. The efficiency of parental involvement in improving children’s academic performance also involves the establishment of a parent-teacher collaboration. Notably, parents can learn strategies of participation in student’s academics through workshops, school seminars, and parent-teacher meetings. The success of parental involvement in early literacy acquisition among children is depicted by higher grades, language 7 fluency, and quick comprehension of concepts at school. 8 References 7 PARENTAL INVOLVEMENT IN EARLY ACQUISITION OF LITERACY 8 Berthelsen, D., #038; Walker, S. (2008). Parents’ involvement in their children’s education. Family matters, (79), 34. Burgess, S. R., Hecht, S. A., #038; Lonigan, C. J. (2002). Relations of the home literacy environment (HLE) to the development of reading‐related abilities: A one‐year longitudinal study. Reading Research Quarterly, 37(4), 408-426. Cherry, K. (2011). Social learning theory: An overview of Bandura’s social learning theory. The New York Times Company. Darling, N. (2007). Ecological systems theory: The person in the center of the circles. Research in human development, 4(3-4), 203-217. Emeagwali, S. (2009). Fostering parent-teacher collaboration in the classroom. Techniques (Association for Career and Technical Education), 84(5), 8. Flynn, G. V. (2007). Increasing parental involvement in our schools: The need to overcome obstacles, promote critical behaviors, and provide teacher training. Journal of College Teaching #038; Learning (TLC), 4(2). Grolnick, W. S., #038; Slowiaczek, M. L. (1994). Parents’ involvement in children’s schooling: A multidimensional conceptualization and motivational model. Child development, 65(1), 237-252. Hornby, G. (2011). Parental involvement in childhood education: Building effective schoolfamily partnerships. Springer Science #038; Business Media. Lee, J. S., #038; Bowen, N. K. (2006). Parent involvement, cultural capital, and the achievement gap among elementary school children. American educational research journal, 43(2), 193218. Williams, T. T., #038; Sánchez, B. (2013). Identifying and decreasing barriers to parent involvement PARENTAL INVOLVEMENT IN EARLY ACQUISITION OF LITERACY for inner-city parents. Youth #038; Society, 45(1), 54-74. 10 9 Comment Summary Page 1 1. Title page should be formatted according to the template provided. Page 2 2. Proper introduction. Please clearly state research question. 3. Subheading Review of literature needed. 4. Left justified. Page 5 5. Left justified. Page 6 6. Analysis subheading. Page 7 7. Conclusion notes insights gleaned froms studies presented. 8. Proper refernce page. 9. Proper identification, review, synthesis and analysis of studies presented regarding parental involvement in literacy acquistion. Please utilize template in final course to better organize and format literature review. Page 9 10. Xavier please remember to download and save your document with feedback for your next course.
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