(Mt) – Concordia University Healthcare in the United States Presentation

FIND A SOLUTION AT Academic Writers Bay

Running Head: HEALTHCARE IN THE UNITED STATES 1 Healthcare in the United States Senior Project Toni Ross Concordia University Chicago HEALTHCARE IN THE UNITED STATES 2 Chapter 1-Healthcare in America Introduction The health sector is one of the most critical areas in the world today. The main aim is to provide quality healthcare for the United States citizens and impact everyone consequently. This paper will focus on healthcare in the United States by looking at the current trending issues, which is the affordability of healthcare in the United States. It is important to note that the United States of America is one of the most developed and advanced countries. Their economic system is on par with that of Canada and big countries such as Russia (Smith et al, 2014). So why is the health sector in the U.S still under-developed and struggling? This is the question most people ask. The political agendas and economic differences that exist in the United States today her the realization of a universal system of healthcare. This paper will help us understand healthcare in the United States of America by looking at all the impacting issues. The most impacting problem in the U.S right now is affordability (Nordal et al, 2012). Body This is according to national state polls that collected the feedback regarding the concerns of the American citizens. Approximately sixty-two percent of the Americans surveyed were concerned with the affordability of healthcare in the United States. The problem of affordability in the United States is primarily a cost problem (Patterson et al, 2014). Healthcare in the United States costs a significant amount. On average, 9,695 $was spent on every man, woman, and child who accessed healthcare in the United States. This means that on average, two people in the HEALTHCARE IN THE UNITED STATES same household will spend approximately 24, 625 dollars on healthcare. This is a tremendous amount of money, considering that the median income for most families in the United States is 53,697 dollars. This means that almost fifty percent of a household’s income is spent on healthcare (Purhfallah et al, 2012). This is if costs and revenues were evenly distributed across the country. It is, however, essential to note that costs in the U.S are not evenly distributed. For one, one percent of the Americans is responsible for twenty percent of the costs in healthcare. The other half of the population spends almost nothing on healthcare costs. Due to these differences, the United States relies on health insurance to level the playing field (Sonke et al, 2009). Health insurance is a crucial factor in the United States. For one, it enables the access of medical care to the citizens at any given time. The health insurance in the company works by creating a pool of money in which all citizens can rely on. The logic behind this is that not all citizens will be sick at one particular time. The pool of money can, therefore, be tailored to meet the most urgent needs of the people who can’t necessarily afford private healthcare. It is important to note that if there were no health insurance, only a few Americans would get the healthcare they need. Obamacare made it possible for Americans to access medical care at all times. While this system may not have been perfect, it contributed to healthcare in the United States significantly. It helped establish a system of balance where all Americans could seek medical help. The government plans to recall this Act and establish new other policies to guide the American citizens. This is a major contributing factor to the problem of healthcare in the United States. This is because citizens have come to depend on this system. Recalling this system will mean canceling the insurance covers of most citizens in the United States. It is 3 HEALTHCARE IN THE UNITED STATES 4 already established that the majority of the United States cannot afford healthcare. This creates a big problem for United States citizens (Orentlicher et al, 2012). It is essential to establish that a cash and carry system is inherently impossible for the United States of America. This is because of the gap that exists in the distribution of wealth and resources in the United States. Approximately 50% of the national income is benefited by 10% of the population. The distribution of wealth in this country is even more unequal. 10% of the population owns about three-quarters of the country’s assets, while 3% own half of the nation’s assets. Studies have suggested that the active community of the United States with incomes between one hundred and two hundred and fifty percent of the poverty level owned net assets worth four hundred dollars (Smith et al, 2014). A section of the population that had incomes ranging from 250 to 400 percent owned net assets worth 2089$. This suggests that many Americans do not have enough finances to pay for healthcare out of their own pockets, much less afford the deductible insurance fee. The affordable care act was aimed towards improving health care in the United States. The United States government spends nearly half of its income on healthcare. This is directed towards the Medicare and Medicaid programs. The federal government subsidizes organizations based on employer-based coverage. This is in the exclusion of employee contributions and coverage from income and taxes (Sonke et al, 2012). The main goal of the ACA was to improve healthcare access. It has achieved this by improving access for the majority of Americans by prohibiting pre-existing conditions and imposing renewal programs for its users. The ACA has also enabled the creation of a risk adjustment program for individuals and small communities. All these programs are tailored towards ensuring equality and moving healthcare costs from HEALTHCARE IN THE UNITED STATES 5 individuals with high healthcare costs to individuals with low healthcare costs (Nguyen et al, 2014). The ACA also ensured that health insurance coverage for lower-income Americans was accessible by increasing the affordability. The ACA ensured the inclusion of everyone in the Medicaid programs by abandoning the distinctions between the deserving and undeserving American citizens. This access is granted to Americans with incomes not exceeding a hundred and thirty-eight of the federal poverty levels. Its progress was, however, hered with the Supreme Court resisting this expansion. This affected three million individuals in different states as they had no access to medical care (Pruitt et al, 2009). Another contribution of the ACA if offering premium tax credits to a sect of the population. People with incomes between a hundred and four hundred percent of the federal poverty level get these tax credits (Rollins et al, 2009). The ACA compensates for this by increasing taxation on households earning above 250000$ a year. With all these measures in place, affordability remains an issue in the U.S. As the ACA’s market reforms became effective, many people in the United States premiums rose sharply. This created the need to include the previously excluded individuals because of high healthcare costs. Secondly, cost-sharing is arguably high for many people in individual and sole coverage. For exle, the deductible amount for a person with personal coverage is three thousand dollars. This amount is not easily accessible as most families in the U.S liquidates their assets. The ACA approach that aims to create affordable coverage for the citizens of the United States is also complicated. For one, coverage for the average population of the United States is subsidized by advanced premium tax credits. This is hard for most American citizens as not all of them can reconcile their incomes accurately and on time (Pruitt et al, 2012). It is also important to note that the ACA has enormous penalties for organizations that fail to provide their 6 HEALTHCARE IN THE UNITED STATES employees with insurance. However, the coverage that employers need to provide to ensure that they abide by this law is inadequate and unreliable. This is the second reason why healthcare in the United States is still unaffordable. Thirdly, the ACA imposes substantial penalties on individuals who can afford health care coverage but choose not to partake in it. This creates a lot of temptations for the citizens. Most of them prefer to pay for the penalty instead of taking health insurance coverage. This renders this system inadequate as it digs into the pool of funds that it had initially created (Patterson et al, 2014). Other factors that influence to the unaffordability of the healthcare system in the United States is the people’s inadequacy. It is important to note that not all United Citizens are hardworking citizens. Some people are more focused on their own gain than the gain of the country in general. See, insurance has become like a norm in the United States. However, some people still decide to go against the rule and regulations of the law. They prefer to pay the penalties and fines in relation to not paying the insurance (Graham-Pole et al, 2009). This digs into the pool of money created for the people of the United States of America. It is essential for this to be addressed. Secondly, the rich are concerned with they gain rather than the gain of the whole country. They are more focused on their selfish ideologies and furthering their agendas rather than supporting the country. If the insurance coverage is beneficial for them in terms of money and resources, then they support and contribute towards it. In essence, the country moves with the moves of the minority which are the rich (Nordal et al, 2012). Conclusion In conclusion, there are so many factors that make health insurance in the United States of America unaffordable. For one, there are policies and laws drawn out that have to prove to be HEALTHCARE IN THE UNITED STATES inadequate. Secondly, the political system and selfish agendas of some people as rendered the efforts towards universal healthcare ineffective. It is important to note that this is an impacting factor in the U.S it affects the people and their way of living. Healthcare is the most critical industries, and everyone should be able to access their services. It is essential to dig deeper into this issue if the course of direction for the healthcare industry in the United States will be changed. 7 HEALTHCARE IN THE UNITED STATES 8 References Sonke, J., Rollins, J., Brandman, R., #038; Graham-Pole, J. (2009). The state of the arts in healthcare in the United States. Arts #038; Health, 1(2), 107-135. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/232935991_The_state_of_the_arts_in_healthcare_in_t he_United_States Orentlicher, D. (2012). Rights to healthcare in the United States: Inherently unstable. American journal of law #038; medicine, 38(2-3), 326-347. https://scholars.law.unlv.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=2078#038;context=facpub Patterson, B. E., Pourfallah, S., Pruitt, J., Nguyen, L., #038; Smith, N. (2014). U.S. Patent No. 8,660,862. Washington, DC: U.S. Patent and Trademark Office. https://www.uspto.gov/sites/default/files/documents/fy18pbr.pdf Nordal, K. C. (2012). Healthcare reform: Implications for independent practice. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 43(6), 535. https://psycnet.apa.org/record/2012-24749-001 HEALTHCARE IN THE UNITED STATES 9 Chapter 2-Background My project was based on the 40 million Americans who were not able to access quality health care in the United States. It is important to note that the United States is one of the most advanced countries in the world today. However, their health care system is in shambles as a result of the different changes being implemented. For one, Obama Care, which ensured that all Americans had insurance and could access quality health care, is in danger of being recalled. This causes a lot of distress to the American people due to their inability to access other forms of insurance, such as private insurance (Sonke et al, 2009). The primary purpose of this paper is to understand the American demographics and the distribution of resources. America is one of the most developed countries, yet there exists a big difference between the poor and the rich. This country is based on capitalism, and this is one of the main reasons for its proper development. However, this creates an impermeable cavity between the rich and the poor. Furthermore, the poor and the middle-class make up about 70% of the population and still occupy the least resources. By understanding the American demographics and the distribution of resources, we can recognize and establish why so many Americans cannot afford quality health care (Orentlicher et al, 2012) Other influencing factors include, shed light on the complex health care system of the United States of America. The health care industry in the U.S.A is now complicated and incomprehensible. Different laws and policies are being passed that the average citizen cannot keep up with (Rollins et al, 2009). The government explains that these policies aim to improve healthcare in the United States, but they end up doing the complete opposite. For one, not all HEALTHCARE IN THE UNITED STATES 10 Americans can afford the healthcare system. The vast majority of Americans are unable to access healthcare services without Obama Care. This sheds light on the severity of the situation and demands it be addressed. This paper will help explain more on the complexities of the American healthcare system. Lastly, this paper aims to unearth opportunities for reform for the American government. It is essential to note that this is a research paper. As such, it digs deep into the issues faced by the American people concerning healthcare (Glass et al, 2012). By understanding these issues, the government is in a position to draft laws that are fair and just to all its citizens. The main aim of the government is to govern its citizens and ensure the protection of its people. This paper aims at helping the government fulfill its missions to the citizens by shedding light on the issues faced and drawing up possible solutions (Graham-Pole et al, 2009). I decided on this specific project because of the issues the United States of America faces. It is important to note that America is one of the prime and most cutting-edge economic systems in the world today. However, due to selfish political agendas and social disparities, America is not able to realize universal healthcare such as Canada. This was the primary motivating factor for choosing this project. America is in a position to unearth so much development in the healthcare system. The healthcare system can grow to include and accommodate everyone (Brandman et al, 2012). There is a vast amount of resources that can be wired to making this happen. I decided on this project to help understand how a universal healthcare system for the United States of American can be created. Secondly, due to the threats to recall Obamacare, this project is essential since it helps unearth alternatives that the poor and the majority of the Americans can turn to. It also helps shed light on the importance of including the citizens when passing laws as this directly affects them. I decided on this project to help the HEALTHCARE IN THE UNITED STATES 11 majority of the United States of American citizens who are continually impacted by the rules and policies in the healthcare system. I also think it possible for a universal healthcare system to be created for all Americans (Averhoff et al, 2012). I hope to impact the United States citizens by unearthing new opportunities for them. In as much as the American healthcare system is in shambles, there is still a glimmer of hope. If research is dedicated to this sector, so many solutions that face the citizens can be found. Secondly, I hope to impact analysis in this field as well. It is important to note that while research has been dedicated to the healthcare industry, there is little research on the solutions and problems faced by the majority of American citizens. Thirdly, I hope to accomplish my goal of shedding light on the importance of Obama care for these people (Sonke et al, 2009). This research will help by explaining the significance of Obamacare and how it influences the majority of Americans. I also hope to change the government in making decisions that benefit all its citizens and not only a sect of the populations. All people in the United States deserve quality healthcare. They should all be impacted. The healthcare system and the government should work together to provide quality healthcare for the community (Holtzman et al, 2012). In conclusion, I believe so much can be done for the healthcare system in America. America can achieve success such as that of countries such as Canada. It all begins with the implementations of laws and policies that ensure fairness in all sects of the society. The government can implement policies that influence all citizens especially those ones that are poor. This will ensure that everyone is affected and the dissemination of quality healthcare in the United States of America. HEALTHCARE IN THE UNITED STATES 12 References Sonke, J., Rollins, J., Brandman, R., #038; Graham-Pole, J. (2009). The state of the arts in healthcare in the United States. Arts #038; Health, 1(2), 107-135. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/232935991_The_state_of_the_arts_in_healthcare_in_t he_United_States Orentlicher, D. (2012). Rights to healthcare in the United States: Inherently unstable. American journal of law #038; medicine, 38(2-3), 326-347. https://scholars.law.unlv.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=2078#038;context=facpub Averhoff, F. M., Glass, N., #038; Holtzman, D. (2012). Global burden of hepatitis C: considerations for healthcare providers in the United States. Clinical infectious diseases, 55(suppl_1), S10-S15. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22715208 HEALTHCARE IN THE UNITED STATES 13 Chapter 3-Senior Project Method of Investigation My senior project was undertaken to test my capabilities and knowledge in regard to what I have been learning. It was, therefore, essential to take the necessary steps when it came to the execution of my project. The first step I took was identifying the primary topic. Recognizing the crucial subject helped me identify what I wanted to write about. Defining a research problem helps introduce the readers to my reading. It helps minimize the scope of my research to one particular problem statement. The second step is placing the problem into a specific context that helps define the parameters of what is being investigated. My research was based on a social level. Identifying the research question helped me answer the ‘so what’ question. This question is essential as it helps in improving the clarity of my research problem. This was vital in my research. The research process is an essential step towards completing my senior project. I identified different scholarly articles that would contribute to my research. These articles were necessary for establishing the background of my study problem and help provide knowledge in my field of study. It is essential to understand that research is needed as it is the primary basis of my senior project. The third most important thing I did is organize my work. I had to shortlist the essential content and identify a necessary substance for my research. I also had to write down what I had read and compiled my research into one full project. The organization is vital as it improves clarity and understanding when it comes to an understanding of my project. In conclusion, my senior project entailed so much work. I have, however, managed to shortlist the essential elements in the senior project. 14 HEALTHCARE IN THE UNITED STATES Chapter 4-Literature Review/List of Resources Article sources 1. Bloomberg. (2018, November 15). Since Obamacare Became Law, 20 Million More Americans Have Gained Health Insurance https://fortune.com/2018/11/15/obamacare-americans-with-health-insurance-uninsured/. 2. Choi, T. (2019, July 29). American caravan arrives in Canadian ‘birthplace of insulin’ for cheaper medicine Retrieved from https://www.reuters.com/article/us-canada-health 3. 4. Martin, D., Miller, A. P., Quesnel-Vallée, A., Caron, N. R., Vissandjée, B., #038; Marchildon, G. P. (2018). Canada’s universal health-care system: achieving its potential. The Lancet, 391(10131), 1718-1735. Obama, B. (2016). United States health care reform: progress to date and next steps. Jama, 316(5), 525-532. 5. Waitzkin, H. (2016). Universal health coverage: The strange romance of The Lancet, MEDICC, 6. and Cuba. Social Medicine, 9(2), 93-97. Sonke, J., Rollins, J., Brandman, R., #038; Graham-Pole, J. (2009). The state of the arts in healthcare in the United States. Arts #038; Health, 1(2), 107-135. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/232935991_The_state_of_the_arts_in_healthcare_in_t he_United_States HEALTHCARE IN THE UNITED STATES 7. 15 Orentlicher, D. (2012). Rights to healthcare in the United States: Inherently unstable. American journal of law #038; medicine, 38(2-3), 326-347. https://scholars.law.unlv.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=2078#038;context=facpub 8. Kricka, L. J., Parsons, D., #038; Coolen, R. B. (1997). Healthcare in the United States and the practice of laboratory medicine. Clinica chimica acta, 267(1), 5-32. https://europepmc.org/article/med/9469242 9. Rodwin, V. G. (2003). The health care system under French national health insurance: lessons for health reform in the United States. American journal of public health, 93(1), 31-37. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1447687/ 10. Zuvekas, S. H., #038; Taliaferro, G. S. (2003). Pathways to access: health insurance, the health care delivery system, and racial/ethnic disparities, 1996–1999. Health affairs, 22(2), 139-153. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12674417 11. Walston, S., Al-Harbi, Y., #038; Al-Omar, B. (2008). The changing face of healthcare in Saudi Arabia. Annals of Saudi medicine, 28(4), 243-250. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18596400 12. Feldstein, M., #038; Friedman, B. (1977). Tax subsidies, the rational demand for insurance and the health care crisis. Journal of Public Economics, 7(2), 155-178. HEALTHCARE IN THE UNITED STATES 16 https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/0047272777900445 13. Gottschalk, M. (2018). The shadow welfare state: Labor, business, and the politics of health care in the United States. Cornell University Press. https://www.amazon.com/Shadow-Welfare-State-Business-Politics/dp/0801486483 14. Moran, M. (1999). Governing the health care state: a comparative study of the United Kingdom, the United States, and Germany. Manchester University Press. https://iucat.iu.edu/iuk/3692709 15. Ferlie, E. B., #038; Shortell, S. M. (2001). Improving the quality of health care in the United Kingdom and the United States: a framework for change. The Milbank Quarterly, 79(2), 281-315. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11439467 Literature Review It is important to note that all these sources are related. They all help shed light in regard to healthcare in the United States. For one, most of these sources focus on health insurance in the United States of America. Health insurance has been one of the most impacting factors in the United States. This is because as it is, healthcare in the United States is not affordable. Most people seek insurance as a way to survive. This comes at a time when so many developed countries have identified ways in which they can impact healthcare in their countries. Most countries are providing universal health coverage for the people of their country. This is aimed at improving the affordability and comfort ability of healthcare systems in their countries. HEALTHCARE IN THE UNITED STATES 17 However, most of these articles focused on the shortcomings of healthcare in the United States instead of offering possible solutions for improvement. Approximately three articles focused on ways in which healthcare can be improved in the United States. This article plays a big role when it comes to my research. For one, it provides the knowledge base and the foundation of my research. By understanding disparities that exists in healthcare I am in a better position to write and review my article. I am also well equipped with the healthcare system of the United States as a result of these articles. In conclusion, these articles contribute greatly to my research in different ways. Chapter 4- Part Two Bloomberg. (2018, November 15). Since Obamacare Became Law, 20 Million More Americans Have Gained Health Insurance https://fortune.com/2018/11/15/obamacare-americans-with-health-insurance-uninsured/. Summary This source is about the health insurance care in America. The Obama Care was introduced in the United States of America to help combat health problems in America. This is an insurance cover aimed at benefiting Americans in the United States. Most Americans did not have insurance health coverage and thus did not seek medical care. The medical expenses in the United States are expensive and not affordable. The common American could not afford these bills. President Obama devised a way to provide insurance coverage for all Americans. Relevance HEALTHCARE IN THE UNITED STATES 18 The Obama Care is a part of healthcare in the United States. My paper was aimed at increasing my understanding of healthcare in the United States. Before President Trump, the Americans depended on the Obama Care. However, each government has different rules and ideologies guiding them. So is the current government. The Obama Care is most likely to be recalled. As such, many Americans will not have access to quality healthcare. This article was essential in my project as it benefited my background studies. Choi, T. (2019, July 29). American caravan arrives in Canadian ‘birthplace of insulin’ for cheaper medicine Retrieved from https://www.reuters.com/article/us-canada-health Summary America is a third world country. As such, it has made the necessary strides towards development. However, countries such as Canada are way more developed when it comes to their healthcare system. America is lagging behind in terms of their healthcare. this article focused on the Canadian Health care system and the American health care system. Relevance This article is relevant to my research as it contributes to my research. It provided the knowledge that could help me compare the two healthcare systems. Canada and the United States are both developed countries. There are however some disparities that relate to the two healthcare systems. This article was relevant in increasing my understanding regarding the healthcare system. 19 HEALTHCARE IN THE UNITED STATES Martin, D., Miller, A. P., Quesnel-Vallée, A., Caron, N. R., Vissandjée, B., #038; Marchildon, G. P. (2018). Canada’s universal health-care system: achieving its potential. The Lancet, 391(10131), 1718-1735. Summary This article focuses on the Canadian healthcare system. The Canadian health care systems is one of the most developed health care systems in the world today. Canadians have affordable and accessible healthcare systems. It is important to note that this article helped provide a comparative analysis when it came to the healthcare systems of the United States. It helped us understand the disparities that existed between the two health care systems. Relevance This article was relevant in my studies regarding the United States of America. To understand the healthcare system of America, it is essential to understand what makes it and builds it. America and Canada are both developed countries. However, the differences in their healthcare systems are palpable. Understanding the Canadian health care system will contribute towards understanding the disparities that exist between the two. Obama, B. (2016). United States health care reform: progress to date and next steps. Jama, 316(5), 525-532. Summary President Obama brought reforms when it came to the healthcare system. The United States requires that every citizen be insured when it comes to healthcare. Healthcare in the United States is not affordable and thus inaccessible for most United States citizens. Obama Care was HEALTHCARE IN THE UNITED STATES 20 aimed at benefiting the United States Citizens and brings development in the country. Healthcare in the United States is hered by poverty. Most Americans are middle-class citizens, this means that most of them cannot afford healthcare in the United States. Relevance This article is relevant in my studies as it contributes to the background of my research. It is essential to understand what healthcare for the United States was before and how it is right now. This helps us understand the developmental rate in the United States of America when it comes to healthcare. Waitzkin, H. (2016). Universal health coverage: The strange romance of The Lancet, MEDICC, and Cuba. Social Medicine, 9(2), 93-97. Summary The Lancet partnered up with the Medical Cooperation with Cuba (MEDICC). This is a nongovernmental organization that was based in the United States Citizens. It is essential to understand that the United States is a diverse country. It has people from different origins. This partnership was aimed at identifying ways in which the healthcare system can be made more comfortable for the people of the United States citizens. Relevance The relevance of this study to my research is that it provides diverse viewpoints about healthcare in the United States. This is essential as it helps us understand the strides the United States has made towards development. In as much as the United States of America has not made the HEALTHCARE IN THE UNITED STATES 21 necessary strides towards health insurance coverage, it has made the necessary strides towards ensuring the comfort ability of the United Citizens. Sonke, J., Rollins, J., Brandman, R., #038; Graham-Pole, J. (2009). The state of the arts in healthcare in the United States. Arts #038; Health, 1(2), 107-135. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/232935991_The_state_of_the_arts_in_healthcare_in_t he_United_States Summary Arts in healthcare is a field emerged from grassroots from the beginning of the mid-twentieth century. This article is relevant as it helps summarize the current state of healthcare in the United States Citizens. This explores the programs offered in the United States citizens and the current status of the field of the United States. Relevance The relevance of this study in my research is that it helps us understand healthcare in the United States of America. My research was based on the current state of healthcare in the United States. This article provides information regarding the current state of healthcare in the United States of America. Orentlicher, D. (2012). Rights to healthcare in the United States: Inherently unstable. American journal of law #038; medicine, 38(2-3), 326-347. https://scholars.law.unlv.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=2078#038;context=facpub Summary HEALTHCARE IN THE UNITED STATES 22 this article focuses on rights to healthcare in the United States of America. It is important to note that first world countries have recognized the rights to healthcare. many developed countries have developed insurance coverage for their people. This is aimed at providing and reviewing healthcare in the United States of America. Relevance This article is relevant to my study as it provides diverse views in regard to healthcare in the world. To understand healthcare in the United States, it is imperative to understand the diverse views of healthcare in the world today. Kricka, L. J., Parsons, D., #038; Coolen, R. B. (1997). Healthcare in the United States and the practice of laboratory medicine. Clinica chimica acta, 267(1), 5-32. https://europepmc.org/article/med/9469242 Summary It is essential to note that laboratory healthcare impacts the current state of healthcare in the United States of America. This article analyzes the factors that influence of healthcare in the United States of America. From the article factors that influence laboratory healthcare include government and organization of healthcare delivery institutions. Relevance The healthcare industry is distributed among different sectors of the health care system. Laboratory health care is one of the sectors of healthcare in the United States. Understanding HEALTHCARE IN THE UNITED STATES 23 what influences healthcare in these sectors will help us understand the state of healthcare in the United States. Rodwin, V. G. (2003). The health care system under French national health insurance: lessons for health reform in the United States. American journal of public health, 93(1), 31-37. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1447687/ Summary The French health care system is one of the most developed and enhanced health care systems in the world today. It combines a universal coverage coupled up with a mix of public- private healthcare. Although this system is not perfect, the French citizens show a high satisfaction rate as compared to the United States. Relevance The relevance of this article to my research is that it provides a system in which healthcare in the United States can be compared to. The United States has not achieved success when it comes to their healthcare system. It is still a work in progress. This article provides the necessary information in regard to healthcare in the United States citizens. Zuvekas, S. H., #038; Taliaferro, G. S. (2003). Pathways to access: health insurance, the health care delivery system, and racial/ethnic disparities, 1996–1999. Health affairs, 22(2), 139-153. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12674417 HEALTHCARE IN THE UNITED STATES 24 Summary The United States is a diverse country. It houses people from all racial and ethnic identifications. It is important to note that there exist racial disparities in the insurance coverage and delivery system in the United States of America. This article compiles data from the Medical Expenditure Panel Surveys and regression to provide a better understanding of differences in healthcare in the United States of America. Relevance This article is relevant to my research as it promotes understanding in the differences that exist in the healthcare industry in regard to the different races. While the United States has made strides towards ensuring racial equality, there still exist differences in the providence of healthcare in the United States of America. Walston, S., Al-Harbi, Y., #038; Al-Omar, B. (2008). The changing face of healthcare in Saudi Arabia. Annals of Saudi medicine, 28(4), 243-250. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18596400 Summary This article is focused on identifying the strides Saudi Arabia has made towards providing quality healthcare to their citizens. It is important to note that this country has experienced high costs in relation to quality healthcare and its public facilities. The country struggles to identify and address these issues in relation to healthcare. HEALTHCARE IN THE UNITED STATES 25 Relevance This article is relevant to my study as it relates to healthcare in the United States of America. This is because it provides a comparative analysis between the healthcare in the United States of America and healthcare in Saudi Arabia. It is essential to understand the differences that exist between the two and how the United States can benefit from healthcare systems of other countries. Feldstein, M., #038; Friedman, B. (1977). Tax subsidies, the rational demand for insurance and the health care crisis. Journal of Public Economics, 7(2), 155-178. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/0047272777900445 Summary There are different factors that affect insurance coverage in the United States. These include tax subsidies and other factors. This article focused on the effect of tax subsidies on health insurance coverage. it is important to note that a person’s optimal insurance coverage depends on him or her balancing his gains by avoiding risk against losses and distortion. Relevance To understand health insurance in the United States, it is imperative to understand factors that affect it. These include taxes. Identifying the issues that affect health insurance coverage in the United States contribute towards understanding the state of healthcare in the United States. HEALTHCARE IN THE UNITED STATES 26 Gottschalk, M. (2018). The shadow welfare state: Labor, business, and the politics of health care in the United States. Cornell University Press. https://www.amazon.com/Shadow-Welfare-State-Business-Politics/dp/0801486483 Summary This article focuses on the state of insurance in the United States of America. This is in relation to the labor policies in the United States of America. It is important to note that the United States of America has laws and policies in regard to employer-employee insurance. This article aims at increasing our understanding towards this. Relevance The relevance of this article to our research is that it contributes to the base of knowledge in regard to the different types of insurance offered in the United States of America. In essence, this article helps us understand insurance at a much broader basis. Moran, M. (1999). Governing the health care state: a comparative study of the United Kingdom, the United States, and Germany. Manchester University Press. https://iucat.iu.edu/iuk/3692709 Summary This article focuses on healthcare in the United States, the United Kingdom and Germany. It provides a comparative analysis between the healthcare states in all these three countries. It contributes towards our understanding of healthcare in all three countries. Relevance HEALTHCARE IN THE UNITED STATES 27 This article is relevant to my research as it contributes to my knowledge base regarding these three countries. Additionally, it helps us compare the healthcare systems of all these three countries. It is essential to understand that all of these three countries are provided with access to insurance. Understanding these three countries helps us understand the state of healthcare in the United States. Ferlie, E. B., #038; Shortell, S. M. (2001). Improving the quality of health care in the United Kingdom and the United States: a framework for change. The Milbank Quarterly, 79(2), 281315. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11439467 Summary This article identifies the problems when it comes to healthcare provision in the United States. It also helps shed light on the factors that can be adopted to influence change in the United States. As such, it is important for my research. Relevance The relevance of this study is that it contributes to my knowledge base in regard to healthcare in the United States. We have already identified ways in which the United States is lagging behind in terms of healthcare. This study provides us with ways in which change can be achieved. 28 HEALTHCARE IN THE UNITED STATES References Bloomberg. (2018, November 15). Since Obamacare Became Law, 20 Million More Americans Have Gained Health Insurance https://fortune.com/2018/11/15/obamacare-americans-with-health-insurance-uninsured/. Choi, T. (2019, July 29). American caravan arrives in Canadian ‘birthplace of insulin’ for cheaper medicine Retrieved from https://www.reuters.com/article/us-canada-health Martin, D., Miller, A. P., Quesnel-Vallée, A., Caron, N. R., Vissandjée, B., #038; Marchildon, G. P. (2018). Canada’s universal health-care system: achieving its potential. The Lancet, 391(10131), 1718-1735. Obama, B. (2016). United States health care reform: progress to date and next steps. Jama, 316(5), 525-532. Waitzkin, H. (2016). Universal health coverage: The strange romance of The Lancet, MEDICC, and Cuba. Social Medicine, 9(2), 93-97. Sonke, J., Rollins, J., Brandman, R., #038; Graham-Pole, J. (2009). The state of the arts in healthcare in the United States. Arts #038; Health, 1(2), 107-135. HEALTHCARE IN THE UNITED STATES 29 https://www.researchgate.net/publication/232935991_The_state_of_the_arts_in_healthcare_in_t he_United_States Orentlicher, D. (2012). Rights to healthcare in the United States: Inherently unstable. American journal of law #038; medicine, 38(2-3), 326-347. https://scholars.law.unlv.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=2078#038;context=facpub Kricka, L. J., Parsons, D., #038; Coolen, R. B. (1997). Healthcare in the United States and the practice of laboratory medicine. Clinica chimica acta, 267(1), 5-32. https://europepmc.org/article/med/9469242 Rodwin, V. G. (2003). The health care system under French national health insurance: lessons for health reform in the United States. American journal of public health, 93(1), 31-37. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1447687/ Zuvekas, S. H., #038; Taliaferro, G. S. (2003). Pathways to access: health insurance, the health care delivery system, and racial/ethnic disparities, 1996–1999. Health affairs, 22(2), 139-153. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12674417 Walston, S., Al-Harbi, Y., #038; Al-Omar, B. (2008). The changing face of healthcare in Saudi Arabia. Annals of Saudi medicine, 28(4), 243-250. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18596400 Feldstein, M., #038; Friedman, B. (1977). Tax subsidies, the rational demand for insurance and the health care crisis. Journal of Public Economics, 7(2), 155-178. HEALTHCARE IN THE UNITED STATES 30 https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/0047272777900445 Gottschalk, M. (2018). The shadow welfare state: Labor, business, and the politics of health care in the United States. Cornell University Press. https://www.amazon.com/Shadow-Welfare-State-Business-Politics/dp/0801486483 Moran, M. (1999). Governing the health care state: a comparative study of the United Kingdom, the United States, and Germany. Manchester University Press. https://iucat.iu.edu/iuk/3692709 Ferlie, E. B., #038; Shortell, S. M. (2001). Improving the quality of health care in the United Kingdom and the United States: a framework for change. The Milbank Quarterly, 79(2), 281-315. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11439467 HEALTHCARE IN THE UNITED STATES 31 Chapter 5-Summary of Findings Particularly, the United States health care delivery system is uniquely complex. Besides, shaped by ideas and interests that drive the process of making policies in the country, the health care system is costly and unequal. The US healthcare system was initially private. However, with the incremental reforms that policy makers have adopted over time so as to correct inadequacies and ensure that health care is delivered to vulnerable populations and minorities, it has become increasingly a complex interaction between private and public mix. Exles of vulnerable populations are those individuals living in low-income demographics. It is particular that health care coverage in the US is highly fragmented. Besides, the healthcare financing is due to a collaboration of federal, state, local, and private resources, which increases complexity. With more parties involved and more regulations created to control the complex healthcare system, it is no doubt that the intended outcomes may never be achieved. It is crucial to acknowledge that without reforms; it is hard to sustain spending in the health care sector. Therefore, I have learned that even though there has been better coverage as well as the accessibility of healthcare over time, there is a high probability that it will be hard to achieve universal healthcare since it is not easy to reduce healthcare costs in the long-term. It is evident HEALTHCARE IN THE UNITED STATES 32 that accessibility to medical care is limited for the majority of people. This is really a potentially crucial consideration in the comprehension of the disadvantage of the US health care system. Furthermore, concerning health insurance coverage, there are many people who are uninsured and under insured in the United States. Therefore, this is a well-recognized problem. In addition, according to the National Research Council (2013), Americans face a high degree of financial barriers concerning the accessibility of health care, for instance, the out-ofpocket health care expenditures, insurance deductibles, and copayments. Sometimes, the higher costs in medical accessibility result in a disadvantage where patients forgo the required care. Therefore, health insurance is an important consideration in the US. With health insurance, individuals are in a position to access medical care at any time. This means that with health insurance, health care services accessibility increases. Furthermore, health insurance enables access to comprehensive as well as quality health care services. One of the barriers to the provision of health services is inadequate insurance coverage. Such barriers lead to unmet healthcare needs. The result is also delaying in the provision of proper care. Most people are also not able to get preventive services. Nonetheless, with adequate health care insurance coverage, hospitalizations can be prevented. Furthermore, since health insurance coverage help individuals gain entry into the health care system, when there is inadequacy, it is hard for people to access the needed healthcare services, thus resulting in late diagnosis, premature deaths, and poor health status. Therefore, access to affordable healthcare for American citizens is not possible in the absence of medical insurance. This is because most of the Americans are not well up as figures about the overall economy postulates. Health insurance covers this gap in the system through availing HEALTHCARE IN THE UNITED STATES 33 funds for use by the neediest persons at any particular time. The logic is that all people do not get sick at the same moment. However, not all hope is lost with the introduction of the Affordable Care Act (ACA) of 2010. After the enactment of the ACA, whose principal aims centered on raising the number of insured people, enhancing healthcare quality, and decreasing health care costs, affordability and accessibility were improved. The ACA was aimed at lowering emergency health care costs and chronic illnesses. Particularly, ACA allowed for healthcare coverage for most individuals. Thus, this was a turning point as it allowed individuals to access preventive care and do away with the high emergency care costs. For the elderly people, they are able to receive subsidized medications for the treatment of chronic illnesses. It is evident that the ACA has been successful in making health insurance successful. The provision of subsidies has gone a long way in making health care accessible. Furthermore, the emphasis of Obamacare is on preventive care. Nonetheless, even with these benefits, there is complexity in the ACA. The subsidies are based on advanced premium tax credits. The implication here is that it is difficult for most of the American citizens to be in a position to reconcile their incomes in an accurate manner. Furthermore, ACA imposes penalties. Even with this, such coverage by employers to employees is not reliable or adequate. This explains the unaffordability of the health care services in the United States. Some employers would rather pay the penalty rather than take the health insurance. Besides, ACA introduced burdensome requirements that decreased the choice and resulted in higher premiums. This is so because while the government rules on insurance premiums was for the aim of aiding individuals HEALTHCARE IN THE UNITED STATES 34 with higher expected health expenditures, it otherwise created an adverse impact and inhibited the application of actuarially determined prices. As detailed by the US Department of Health and Human Services (2018), ACA forces insurers to offer a mandatory set of government-defined benefits. This kind of rule results in a reduction in consumer choice. It also indicates a hidden cost on the consumers and forces them to pay more. This is a clear indication that excessive mandates hinder innovation in the healthcare system service provision as well as reduces access to coverage. In addition, such mandates and regulations limit the efforts of public policy makers to assure affordability without having to rely on government subsidies. Policy makers must comprehend that for a complex health care system to work well, it is important to ensure efficient interactions between the components that affect the system at the federal, state and local level. It is crucial that efficient interactions among patients, families, physicians, and nursing facilities staff are established. This can only happen if there are adequate reimbursements for hospitals in terms of care, tests and healthcare procedures. A failure to recognize this characteristic is one of the inadequacies of the US healthcare system. With the present fee-for-service system, it is hard to share the responsibility of patient care between parties and thus limit payment to only a service at a time. It is no doubt that the United States spend significantly more on health care even compared to Canada, which has an efficient health care system. In a nutshell, the healthcare system in the U.S is characterized by inefficiency and complexities on the players in the system. The reforms and regulations result in mandates that increase costs, reduce competition, and contribute little to enhancing the nation’s health care HEALTHCARE IN THE UNITED STATES 35 system. Therefore, the inefficiencies and mandates result in high insurance premiums. The health insurance coverage, especially for individuals, have increased. The out-of-pocket expenditures in health care have also increased. It is clear that with the current U.S government bureaucracies, it is not easy to make favorable changes. Changes are normally slow to implement, and it has become difficult to adapt to healthcare innovations. Chapter 6-Conclusion The American healthcare system has been flawed over the years since the discarding of Obama Care as the primary medical insurance cover for the low earners in the country. Such has been the deterioration that providers of the service such as Dollar Tree and CVS have been seeking to reach out to the more than 40million United States nationals who are incapable of accessing healthcare services. However, despite the seemingly generous gesture of the organizations reaching out to the poor, it has been through exploitative means as they take advantage of the high buying power of this category of Americans. This buying power is not in reality high. Instead, it mockingly describes how the providers exploit the necessity of the poor to accessing essential services such as healthcare at costs, which are so high for them yet very affordable to the rich. While the US ranks as the world’s superpower regarding economic development, a glimpse into the country’s healthcare system paints a different picture. Fueled by the country’s controversial political agendas and the burgeoning gaps in the social statuses, the country is experiencing the worst healthcare system when compared to those of countries such as Canada and Cuba. Attempts to resuscitate the healthcare system are further hered by the split political opinions with the much controversial Obama Care central to the arguments. In reality, HEALTHCARE IN THE UNITED STATES 36 despite being much maligned by a faction of Americans, Obama Care is the closest the nations have had in regard to having a universal healthcare system. Since its establishment, Obama Care has aided over 20million Americans to access accessible healthcare. However, even attempts to use the scheme as a haven for the common American citizen are proving futile with the capitalistic set up of the country’s healthcare system proving to be a barrier. For instance, an insulin vial that goes for $300 in the US retails at about $30 in Canada. This perfectly paints the picture of the situation in the country where access to basic services in highly almost impossible for low-class citizens. The paper sought to devise means of healing the American healthcare system through averting the present system from being the oppressive channel of milking the common American citizens the little money that they have to the dream affordable universal scheme that is existent in nations such as Cuba and Canada. Particularly, with universal healthcare policy, collecting funds to a national healthcare kitty and reassigning them to the most needful Americans is highly useful in ensuring equality in regard to accessing the basic need of medical care. The Affordable Care Act (ACA), mimicked Obama Care by its critics, has so far been the most successful health insurance scheme in filling the gap that has been existent in the country’s healthcare system over the years. As a result, recalling the application of the ACA has been on the pipeline as the government attempts to ensure accessible healthcare to all the citizens. This action has the potential tradeoff of cancelling the existing healthcare insurance policies for most Americans (Orentlicher, 2012). The presence of ACA over the past years has seen the gaining of much ground in regard to offsetting the economic imbalances that are existent in the country, especially in regard to HEALTHCARE IN THE UNITED STATES 37 accessing medical care. In a country where a select portion of individuals is super-rich with the bulk of the population surviving on meager returns, ACA is the only solution to the effective distribution of resources. Its success cannot be undermined with some of the advantages, including the creation of risk adjustment programs for individuals and small communities, which further seeks to bring equity in resource distribution. By eliminating the divisions that existed before whereby some people were categorized as deserving and others as undeserving, the ACA guarantees access to medical care for all the citizens. While ACA might prove to be the best bet to healing the ailing American healthcare system, it has loads of challenges towards its implementation that ought to be resolved first. Primarily, the ACA seeks to provide subsidies to the taxpayers through offering premium tax credits. This is after the reconciliation of the incomes and revenues of the individual citizens. This proves to be difficult, with many Americans being unable to compile the reports accurately and on time. The system governing how employers should assist their employees in accessing healthcare is also poor. It renders most Americans unable to access basic healthcare services. The ACA also punishes those who evade enrolling in the healthcare coverage schemes, yet they can afford it. However, most Americans choose to pay the penalty rather than enroll in insurance schemes. The existence of such policies and the failure of Americans to comply with them highlights why there is a need to reconstitute the ACA. Recommendations The ACA is a workable idea of improving healthcare affordability in the United States, but it requires some rectifications to cover for the gaps that are existent at the moment. One of the primary recommendations is to make more affordable, especially to ordinary American HEALTHCARE IN THE UNITED STATES 38 citizens. This can be done through offering more financial subsidies to lessen the burden of the Americans in accessing healthcare. The objective can be achieved through actions such as eliminating the 400% credit eligibility cap that locks out some of the most deserving individuals (American College of Physicians, 2019). Secondly, the government should impose measures that ensure that healthcare insurance schemes are harmonized throughout the country. This can be done through close monitoring, whether the insurance firms are compliant with ACA policies. Also, the creation of policies that make health insurance a competitive field for providers will aid in lowering the costs and making healthcare affordable to most citizens. This will aid in lowering the cost of healthcare throughout the country. Enrollment should also be improved through means that are more accommodative to all the citizens (American College of Physicians, 2019). This means that the government should set aside funds to facilitate creating awareness on the necessity of the citizens enrolling in healthcare insurance schemes. Through the caigns, the government should also investigate the underlying cause of low enrolment for individuals who highly require being in the schemes but are hesitant or unable to meet the threshold for eligibility. Furthermore, the government should continue to work with policy makers to enact legislation that remedies key issues that result from ACA, so as to promote greater health care choices and produce a sustainable government healthcare financing. Therefore, loosening insurance rules and mandates will be at a greater benefit for the American Citizens. Areas for Further research Improving the United States healthcare department is a field that requires much worth other than attempting to resuscitate the ACA. In that regard, a potential area for further research that could propose remedies to the US healthcare system is investigating the Canadian Medicare situation. It is highly recommended even by US politicians such as Bernie Sanders, and this HEALTHCARE IN THE UNITED STATES 39 makes it imperative to analyze it. Comparison to the American ACA should be made in the investigation as this would be critical in further elaborating where the American system has been getting it wrong throughout the years. Chapter 7-Reflection The senior project offered an excellent opportunity to sharpen my research skills as a scholar. The focus on the healthcare system of the U.S. was a remarkable experience to recognize its challenges and milestones made by both the federal and national governments. I am now better skilled regarding the processes of research, and my master status as a scholar is more detailed. Research Design The selection of research design was an exciting and educative procedure for deciding how to govern my research problem. I concentrated on the evaluation of procedures and methods used by past researchers to gather and analyse their data. I also focused on the rationale they proposed to support their designs. The use of such evidence was necessary to boost the validity of my research project. The focus on the healthcare system of the U.S. was an opportunity to determine the milestones made concerning the promotion of equity and equality in HEALTHCARE IN THE UNITED STATES 40 the provision of healthcare services. Similarly, reliance on available literature helped to narrow down the research project to reduce the likelihood of complexities. Methodology I focused on a review of existing literature as the method for the research project. This technique offered a conceptual framework for the planning of my research. I consulted numerous materials to develop a straightforward knowledge concerning what has been done to help individuals disadvantaged in the provision of healthcare services. The focus on reliable academic and scholarly articles was a learning experience to determine what validity and reliability of a research project involve. I analyzed my sources to determine how they tested and proved these issues in the materials. Also, the approach of the literature review aided in learning what a peer-reviewed journal involves. Some authors described their peer review processes, which expounded on recommendations that were made by past authors and some of their contemporaries. Sources from insiders and experts within the healthcare industry focused on the qualitative and quantitative aspects of conducting research. I learned the differences between the two approaches, including tools used in both. For instance, qualitative research depends on interviews, analysis of documents, discussions at the focus group level, and observational approaches. Conversely, quantitative research utilizes numerical information to determine statistical associations between variables. Exles include surveys, evaluations, and the use of questionnaires. Some of my sources used single methods, while others applied mixed qualitative and quantitative approaches that fall under the umbrella of the mixed method. In doing so, I managed to recognize the benefits of a mixed approach. Lastly, the focus on the existing literature was a learning experience for determining the difference between dependent and HEALTHCARE IN THE UNITED STATES 41 independent variables of research. I noted that the quality of healthcare in the U.S encompasses the dependent variable while outcomes of such services define the independent variables. Execution Phase of the Project The overall ten-week execution phase of my project exercise was a complicated process. I learned resilience skills and the flexibility to make necessary changes to guarantee a smooth continuation of project activity. I understood the significant phases of a project exercise such as initiation, planning, execution, and closure. These phases denote the life cycle of a project which starts at the ideation and ends at the termination stage. The start of the project course marked the initiation stage of the project. I learned skills in determining the feasibility of my project and why I should undertake the exercise. Furthermore, I managed to conduct feasibility to define the problem for the project. My instructor was helpful at this stage and gave the green light to move the exercise to the next phase. I also learned the importance of a project initiation document and outlined the purpose of the project, stakeholders involved, and the business case of the project. The subsequent weeks of classes before needing to submit my project was useful for developing the best skills for the planning of a project. I learned how to create CLEAR and S.M.A.R.T goals for project exercise. The learning process significantly guided my selection of learning outcomes for the project. I managed to concentrate on three areas, such as the challenges of the healthcare system in the U.S and the opportunities for improvements in healthcare. Furthermore, I focused on assessing healthcare demographics in the U.S. to recognize the distribution of necessary social amenities and incomes. My project did not focus on a practical fieldwork process; thus, I could not create a Work Breakdown Structure, a plan for the HEALTHCARE IN THE UNITED STATES 42 management of risks, or a communication plan. Nevertheless, I learned the distinction between my literature review project and the practical fieldwork activity. The weeks after were vital in propelling the project into the execution phase. I studied my research materials and summarized their reports to determine their relevance to the study of the healthcare system of the U.S. I was surprised by the relationship between the sources and how they described the health insurance system of America. The articles stressed on the affordability of healthcare. The last part of writing the research paper was simple since I had gathered adequate information to argue my points regarding the essence of improving healthcare insurance. The final writes up was an opportunity to propose recommendations to ensure healthcare systems serve expected needs. Review of the literature was a tedious process and required a lot of studies to determine disparities in the provision of healthcare. Similarly, the location of relevant sources was a tedious process since strived to utilize credible sources. Most of the sources that were readily available were blog posts and general internet sources that lacked authors. Another chance to execute the project activity would present an opportunity for making adjustments regarding searching my sources. I would focus on government websites and websites of non-governmental organizations that focus on the provision of healthcare services to locate sources quickly. In all, I can say that I feel confident in the progress I have made in determining the healthcare system of the United States. HEALTHCARE IN THE UNITED STATES 43 References American College of Physicians. (ACP). (2019). Want to Improve the Affordable Care Act? Here’s How, Suggests ACP. Retrieved 17 April 2020, from https://www.acponline.org/advocacy/acp-advocate/archive/april-19-2019/want-toimprove-the-affordable-care-act-heres-how-suggests-acp National Research Council. (2013). US health in international perspective: shorter lives, poorer health. In Panel on Understanding Cross-National Health Differences Among HighIncome Countries. Committee on Population, Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education, and Board on Population Health and Public Health Practice. National Academies Press Washington, DC. Orentlicher, D. (2012). Rights to healthcare in the United States: Inherently unstable. American journal of law #038; medicine, 38(2-3), 326-347. Retrieved from https://scholars.law.unlv.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=2078#038;context=facpub US Department of Health and Human Services. (2018). Reforming America’s Healthcare System through Choice and Competition; 2018. Retrieved from https://www.hhs.gov/sites/default/files/Reforming-Americas-Healthcare-SystemThrough-Choice-and-Competition.pdf

Order from Academic Writers Bay
Best Custom Essay Writing Services

QUALITY: ORIGINAL PAPER NO PLAGIARISM - CUSTOM PAPER

Why Choose Us?

  • non-plagiarized Papers
  • 24/7 /365 Service Available
  • Affordable Prices
  • Any Paper, Urgency, and Subject
  • Will complete your papers in 6 hours
  • On-time Delivery
  • Money-back and Privacy guarantees
  • Unlimited Amendments upon request
  • Satisfaction guarantee
SATISFACTION
SATISFACTION

How It Works

  • Click on the “Place Your Order” tab at the top menu or “Order Now” icon at the bottom and a new page will appear with an order form to be filled.
  • Fill in your paper’s requirements in the "PAPER DETAILS" section.
  • Fill in your paper’s academic level, deadline, and the required number of pages from the drop-down menus.
  • Click “CREATE ACCOUNT ; SIGN IN” to enter your registration details and get an account with us for record-keeping and then, click on “PROCEED TO CHECKOUT” at the bottom of the page.
  • From there, the payment sections will show, follow the guided payment process and your order will be available for our writing team to work on it.

About AcademicWritersBay.com

AcademicWritersBay.comnbsp;is an easy-to-use and reliable service that is ready to assist you with your papers 24/7/ 365days a year. 99% of our customers are happy with their papers. Our team is efficient and will always tackle your essay needs comprehensively assuring you of excellent results. Feel free to ask them anything concerning your essay demands or Order.

AcademicWritersBay.com is a private company that offers academic support and assistance to students at all levels. Our mission is to provide proficient andnbsp;high quality academic servicesnbsp;to our highly esteemed clients. AcademicWritersBay.com is equipped with competent andnbsp;proficient writersnbsp;to tackle all types of your academic needs, and provide you with excellent results. Most of our writers are holders ofnbsp;master's degreesnbsp;ornbsp;PhDs, which is an surety of excellent results to our clients. We provide assistance to students all over the world.
We provide high quality term papers, research papers, essays, proposals, theses and many others. Atnbsp;AcademicWritersBay.com, you can be sure ofnbsp;excellent gradesnbsp;in your assignments and final exams.

NO PLAGIARISM
NO PLAGIARISM
error: Content is protected !!