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View attached explanation and answer. Let me know if you have any questions.Effect of MammographicScreening from Age 40 Yearson Breast Cancer Mortality (UKAge trial)NameInstitution affiliationCourse nameDateExecutiveSummary• This model has been used in deferent set ups andto explore more the presentation will focus onthe article “Effect of mammographic screeningfrom age 40 years on breast cancer mortality(UK Age trial)Introduction•Western countries such as the UK have a program that offers mammography to women between the age of 40-49years.•Screening of women happens after every three years although it is not yet clear on the exact age on whenscreening should start.•The article focuses on the effect of mammographic screening in women from age 40 years to 48years old and thebreast cancer mortality rate.Introduction• However, tumors in young women developrapidly since they have fewer estrogenlevels.• Mammography screening has both positiveand negative effects. The paper aims atreporting breast cancer incidences andmortality results.MethodsStudyDesign andParticipants• The age group of women selectedrandomly and allocated to annualscreening was between 39 to 41 years.• Women aged 50 years were chosenand used as a control group andparticipated in the ScreeningProgramme.Methods• Women who were in the intervention groupswere to participate by and weregiven invitation letters and leafletscontaining trial information.• was obtained from London Central ResearchEthics CommitteeRandomizationand masking• Women who participated either in theintervention or control groups were chosenin the ratio of 1:2.• Health Authorities conducted randomizationand distribution of trial groups throughcomputer systems and hoc software.Randomization and maskingRandomization of individualswas done, followed bystratifying the generalpractitioners’ practice listswhile unrestricting andunblocking randomization.Deliverance of screeningresults to the interventiongroups was necessary.Outcomes• The women who were chosen in theintervention stage diagnosed with breastcancers had a higher rate of mortalities andwere described as caused after randomization.• The recorded deaths were termed as caused bybreast cancers as the recorded cause in the deathcertificateStatisticalanalysis• The planned trial consisted of 195,000participants over a period of ten years ofanalysis, and the number was taking intoconsideration slower recruitments andamended estimates.• The breast cancer trial was established tohave 90% power in order to detect about a20% rate of reduction in the mortality ofbreast cancer among the intervention groupover a period of fourteen years (Henley etal., 2020).Statisticalanalysis• The Trial Management Groups decided toapply two-sided testing to reduce the risksof false-positive trial results.• From the 160,000 participants and the use oftwo-sided testing, a higher percentage of88% power showed a decrease of 24% over14 years.Statistical analysis• Estimating cumulative hazards was calculated using Nelson-Aalen, and the incidence data wereanalyzed using the same methods as those of mortality data. The primary analysis evaluated mortalityoutcomes between the control and intervention groups on the principle of intentions to treat.• There was bias in estimating effects on mortality from cancers in the intervention groups. The causeof bias was diagnosis at the screening stage that would have been identified at or after the NHSBSPscreen.Statisticalanalysis• Statistical analysis was done using thelatest version of Stata. The roles of thefunding sources and the funders of theclinical trials did not participate in thestudy design, data collection, analysis,interpretation, and wr…
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