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“Confounding is the term used to describe distortion of the estimate of the effect of an exposure of interest because it is mixed with the effect of an extraneous factor. According to Susser, a confounding variable is “an independent variable that varies systematically with the hypothetical causal variable under study. When uncontrolled, the effects of a confounding variable cannot be distinguished from those of the study variable” (Friis ; Sellers, 2014, pg. 445).
In your Week Five assignment, please answer the following questions:
Define confounding and state how confounding can affect a study’s conclusion. What is meant by Simpson’s paradox and how does it pertain to confounding? How do epidemiologic researchers control for confounding?Suppose as an epidemiologist you are responsible for measuring study participants’ blood pressure. Some dropped the instrument and the needle on the gauge has been bent so that the readings are too high. What type of error is this? What type of error would occur if the instrument is working properly but only one person took only measurement from each person? How could you minimize each of the foregoing types of error?Consider the following scenario to answer questions c through h: The death rate per 100,000 for lung cancer is 7 among nonsmokers and 71 among smokers. The death rate per 100,000 for coronary thrombosis is 422 among nonsmokers and 599 among smokers. The prevalence of smoking in the population is 55% (If necessary, refer to the chapter 9 on cohort studies for formulas for relative risk (RR) Be sure to show the formulas for your work as well as your calculations. Present your final results and their interpretation in a table format.
What is the RR of dying of lung cancer for smokers versus nonsmokers?What is the RR of dying of coronary thrombosis for smokers versus nonsmokers?What is the etiologic fraction of disease due to smoking among individuals with lung cancer?What is the etiologic fraction of disease due to smoking among individuals with coronary thrombosis?What is the population etiologic fraction of lung cancer due to smoking?What is the population etiologic fraction of coronary thrombosis due to smoking?
Picasso#8217;s Painting Les Demoiselles d#8217;Avignon GuidesorSubmit my paper for examination picasso les demoiselles d avignonWe can just envision the effect that this life-size artwork had on watchers 100 years prior. #8220;Les Demoiselles d#8217;Avignon#8221; displays an audacious dismissal for the made-up rules of craftsmanship. In spite of the fact that the artwork was not indicated freely until 1916, Georges Braque saw the canvas in 1907 in Pablo Picasso#8217;s studio before the paint dried. What#8217;s more, what Braque saw changed the hereditary code of his knowledge until the end of time. I speculate that for some specialists today, #8220;Les Demoiselles d#8217;Avignon#8221; has lost none of its pizzazz. Its conflict of powers and thoughts transmits a force that doesn#8217;t blur. Craftsmanship history specialists normally talk about the Demoiselles as far as substance: a massage parlor—five whores in a puzzling room that incorporates a table with still-life (natural product), vaporous textures (tablecloth, window ornaments, garments, backdrop), and perhaps a seat; as far as three significant impacts: Primitivism—communicated through plain sexuality, evenness, geometric structure, and references to Egyptian profile-workmanship (the lady at the left) and African ancestral veils (the two right figures); El Greco (extension/vertical twisting); and Cézanne (geometrization and shallow profundity of the pictorial field, just as echoes of Cézanne#8217;s compositions of bathers in the course of action of nudes); regarding illustrative gadgets: the owl-like head swivel of the situated lady on the right (an early, exacting case of #8220;synchronization#8221;) and the profile-like leveling of the noses of the two ladies second and third from the left; or as far as the geometric proper numbers that involve the skeptical tasteful framework (triangles, wedges, precious stones, ovals, trapezoids, and mixes of these shapes), another sign of the long shadow cast over the entire canvas by Cézanne. In any case, standard conversations once in a while test the more profound spatial capabilities of the composition. Analysts do concur on the rudiments: the 3-D picture space dwells in a domain of uncertainty, connoted partially by forceful dissecting and foregrounding of body parts, (for exle, the left hand of the lady on the left, the left leg of the second lady from the left, and the leader of the situated lady on the right). Through these and different gadgets of visual clash, Picasso got back on track and plumbed an inalienably structural part of the work of art#8217;s association: space. Because of Picasso#8217;s quest for better approaches to sort out a stylish field and accommodate 3-D structure with the level picture surface, the Demoiselles viciously overturned the #8220;laws#8221; of straight point of view held consecrated since the Renaissance and tested the shows we partner with how to speak to ordinary space. At last, as painter/essayist John Golding and others have commonly watched, the transaction of structure and space in the Demoiselles adds to a Cézanne-like round of assertion and forswearing opposite the dream of perspectival space versus the truth of the levelness of the artwork#8217;s canvas. Collapsed surfaces (textures), collapsed structures (bodies and dividers), and collapsed spaces (inside/outside) show up with dumbfounding identicalness—wavering between oppositional values: crack and combination, projection and downturn, volume and plane. #8220;In Violin#8221; and different arrangements by Picasso, Braque, or Juan Gris, the idea of #8220;Les Demoiselles d#8217;Avignon#8221;— who speaks to what is named as critical space—works as a controlling standard. Furthermore, from painters to stone workers to designers, craftsmen today who tap this ageless rule become structure creators, yet in addition space producers. These specialists get familiar with the key to turning out to be plan creators. This paper composed by Madison Gray and significant changes have been made. The full duplicate of this exposition is at: https://archive.org/subtleties/PicassoLessons craftsmanship article, paper about famgt;
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