HLTH 4900 WU Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Due to Smoking Presentation

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WK 6 CAPSTONE PROJECT Presentation DETAILS Due 1/4/2021 2pm CST Capstone Project: Assignment #6—Capstone Project Presentation For this Assignment, you will create a Microsoft PowerPoint presentation based off your Final Literature Review that analyzes a health-related topic or issue. Each slide of your presentation will address one of your Program Learning Outcomes per the outlines below. To prepare: • Review the requirements in the Capstone Project Guide (this document). • Download the Capstone Presentation Template that aligns to your Program of Study (found in the weekly resource section). ATTACHED as (PP_BSHCM_TemplateCAPSTONEProjectGuide) • Review the Capstone Project Presentation Rubric. To complete: For this Project assignment: Create the PowerPoint slides for your Capstone Project Presentation (Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease COPD). Follow the guidelines in your Capstone Project Guide and Capstone Project Presentation template for the topics that must be covered in your presentation slides. You will have notes (talking points) for each slide that you create. Your notes should expand on what you have included on the slide that is addressing the Capstone Project Guide. Create your Capstone Presentation using the Presentation template that applies to your program (B.S. in Healthcare Management). The requirements for each slide are detailed on that document. This Assignment requires two submissions: • Submission 1: PowerPoint Document o Submit the PowerPoint presentation by Day 2 to the Week 6 1/4. Resource 1: Program Learning Outcomes Below: B.S. in Healthcare Management (BSHCM) Program Learning Outcomes 1. Critically appraise the context and quality of healthcare delivery inside and outside of the United States. 2. Evaluate health-related research and research methods. 3. Analyze how population health impacts healthcare (including behavioral, demographic, and cultural factors). 4. Explain how different factors impact the delivery of healthcare services (including technology, legal, and ethical factors). 5. Evaluate the inter-professional approach to healthcare delivery. 6. Articulate critical issues in acute and long-term care from the perspective of patient and practitioner. 7. Analyze evidence-based factors that impact a health care organization’s performance, quality, and safety. 8. Apply foundational healthcare economic evaluation and financial management skills. 9. Apply strategic planning methods to healthcare organizations (including planning, implementing, and marketing). 10. Evaluate human resource methods of managing healthcare employees. 11. Demonstrate an understanding of healthcare financial issues (including insurance, reimbursement, and prospective payment). Resource 2: attached Annotated Bibliography COPD (Wk3ProjClarkJ) Resource 3: attached Mini Literature Review COPD (Wk4ProjClarkJ) Resource 4: Attached PowerPoint Template (PP_BSHCM_TemplateCAPSTONEProjectGuide) Resource 5: Capstone Project guide: Below and WK6 information Above for project… Capstone Project Overview The Capstone Project is your opportunity to integrate, synthesize, and apply a health or healthcare topic of choice to your Program Learning Outcomes to demonstrate your mastery of your Program of Study. This Capstone Project will challenge you to integrate ideas presented in all your previous courses. The Capstone Project should also push you beyond the boundaries of your prior work. You will creatively explore and apply the knowledge and experiences gained from your core courses, concentration, and electives, professional organizations, and additional resources and research. Blending these experiences and resources will help you to complete a Bibliography, Mini Literature Review, and a final Capstone Project Presentation. CAPSTONE PROJECT HLTH/PUBH 4900 B.S. IN HEALTHCARE MANAGEMENT CHRONIC OBSTRUCTIVE PULMONARY DISEASE (COPD) NAME; DATE; TERM LEARNING OUTCOMES 1 AND 2 • Explain your topic and the rationale for your project. • Provide a few researched facts about your chosen healthcare issue. • Specifically discuss how it impacts the context and quality of healthcare delivery inside and outside of the United States. • How does this health issue transcend borders? In other words, explain how this issue impacts the global society—not just your local community, state, or country. • Make sure that all data and research are properly cited within your PowerPoint slides. LEARNING OUTCOMES 1 AND 2 CONTINUED • Explain your topic and the rationale for your project. • Provide a few researched facts about your chosen healthcare issue. • Specifically discuss how it impacts the context and quality of healthcare delivery inside and outside of the United States. • How does this health issue transcend borders? In other words, explain how this issue impacts the global society—not just your local community, state, or country. • Make sure that all data and research are properly cited within your PowerPoint slides. LEARNING OUTCOME 3 • Explain how behavioral, demographic, and cultural factors impact your selected healthcare issue. • Which groups are most impacted? • What are some of the cultural biases of this healthcare issue? • Give at least 2 exles of culturally and linguistically appropriate health services to avoid unequal treatment when delivering healthcare to your chosen group. LEARNING OUTCOME 3 CONTINUED • Explain how behavioral, demographic, and cultural factors impact your selected healthcare issue. • Which groups are most impacted? • What are some of the cultural biases of this healthcare issue? • Give at least 2 exles of culturally and linguistically appropriate health services to avoid unequal treatment when delivering healthcare to your chosen group. LEARNING OUTCOMES 5 AND 6 • Describe the critical issues in acute and long-term care from patient and provider perspectives in order to reduce this problem, and give an exle of how an interprofessional “team” approach can be used to address this problem. LEARNING OUTCOMES 5 AND 6 CONTINUED • Describe the critical issues in acute and long-term care from patient and provider perspectives in order to reduce this problem, and give an exle how an interprofessional “team” approach can be used to address this problem. LEARNING OUTCOMES 4 AND 7 • Describe one technological, one legal, and one ethical issue related to your chosen healthcare issue. • Give an evidence-based exle of how a healthcare organization’s performance, quality, and safety can be improved to overcome the technological/legal/ethical issue. LEARNING OUTCOMES 4 AND 7 CONTINUED • Describe one technological, one legal, and one ethical issue related to your chosen healthcare issue. • Give an evidence-based exle of how a healthcare organization’s performance, quality, and safety can be improved to overcome the technological/legal/ethical issue. LEARNING OUTCOMES 8 AND 10 • What are some of the healthcare costs, specific to economic evaluation and financial management associated with this issue, and how do they impact the quality of health service delivery? • Give an exle of how human resource methods of managing healthcare employees could lead to cost-effective care and improved outcomes for patients. LEARNING OUTCOMES 8 AND 10 CONTINUED • What are some of the healthcare costs, specific to economic evaluation and financial management associated with this issue, and how do they impact the quality of health service delivery? • Give an exle of how human resource methods of managing healthcare employees could lead to cost-effective care and improved outcomes for patients. LEARNING OUTCOMES 8 AND 11 • Explain how your healthcare issue impacts, or is impacted by, insurance, reimbursement, prospective payment, and value-based purchasing. • Give evidence-based exles of how fraud and abuse impact delivery and access to care. LEARNING OUTCOMES 8 AND 11 CONTINUED • Explain how your healthcare issue impacts, or is impacted by, insurance, reimbursement, prospective payment, and value-based purchasing. • Give evidence-based exles of how fraud and abuse impact delivery and access to care. LEARNING OUTCOMES 2 AND 9 • Research and list one healthcare organization addressing your health issue. • Apply strategic planning methods by describing the organization’s mission, vision, and values, and analyze the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats of the healthcare organization. LEARNING OUTCOMES 2 AND 9 CONTINUED • Research and list one healthcare organization addressing your health issue. • Apply strategic planning methods by describing the organization’s mission, vision, and values, and analyze the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats of the healthcare organization. LEARNING OUTCOMES AND WALDEN’S MISSION • Provide 2–3 exles of what you’ve learned in your program to advance social change by addressing this healthcare issue as an effective healthcare administrator as it relates to the areas of strategic planning, budgeting and fiscal evaluation, management, human resources, or leadership. LEARNING OUTCOMES AND WALDEN’S MISSION CONTINUED • Provide 2–3 exles of what you’ve learned in your program to advance social change by addressing this healthcare issue as an effective healthcare administrator as it relates to the areas of strategic planning, budgeting and fiscal evaluation, management, human resources, or leadership. REFERENCES • Make sure all of your references follow APA formatting. • You may use additional slides for references as needed. 1 Capstone Project Assignment 2: Bibliography Capstone Project Assignment 2: Bibliography JENNIFER CLARK Walden University HLTH 4900 Instructor: Professor Montrece Ransom 2 Capstone Project Assignment 2: Bibliography Annotated Bibliography American Lung Association. (2021a). COPD causes and risk factors. https://www.lung.org/lung-health-diseases/lung-disease-lookup/copd/what-causescopd Learning outcome 1. The ALA provides general information on COPD and who is at risk of the disease. The website also gives ways to reduce the risk of having COPD. It also provides supplies links to other websites that promote health and wellness, such as the stop smoking caign. The website also provides tips for living a healthier lifestyle. The ALA website is up to date with information concerning COPD causes and risk factors. The information from the ALA is credible and provides links to wellness programs. This aligns with several learning outcomes on the context of healthcare in the management of COPD in the U.S., along with providing information on how the disease impacts healthcare. American Lung Association. (2021b). COPD research. https://www.lung.org/lung-health-diseases/lung-disease-lookup/copd/copd-research Learning outcome 2. The ALA website delivers information on current COPD research and studies that being conducted. One exle is the Inspired COPD pilot study that is funded by the ALA. The ALA gives a link to see current research information and how the health-related research is being conducted. Current research topics are discussed on the ALA website along with links to findings. The Airways 3 Capstone Project Assignment 2: Bibliography Clinic Research Center (ACRC) is also discussed and the importance of their research and current clinical trials. This credible website is up to date and contains links to many health-related research information sites. The ALA COPD research gives information about COPD that presents ideas that are informative towards the development of preventive and intervention oriented practical programs. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2011). Public health strategic framework for COPD prevention. https://www.cdc.gov/copd/pdfs/framework_for_copd_prevention.pdf Learning outcome 9. The CDC is considered a trusted website that provides essential information in COPD prevention. This website also discusses the framework for initiatives to promote prevention, education, and strategies to manage COPD. The CDC website identifies the goals needed to prevent and control COPD. The information provided by the CDC on this website the framework for healthcare organizations to apply effective planning strategies for COPD patients. It further proposes a focus on healthy modifications of lifestyle that healthcare organizations can aid in education on prevention and management. Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS). (2021). Hospital readmissions reduction program (HRRP). https://www.cms.gov/Medicare/Medicare-Fee-forService-Payment/AcuteInpatientPPS/Readmissions-Reduction-Program Learning outcome 11. CMS is another trusted website with information that pertains to regulatory standards and reimbursement for healthcare services. This trusted source 4 Capstone Project Assignment 2: Bibliography provides information concerning the Hospital Readmissions Reduction Program (HRRP) in which COPD falls under. CMS describes HRRP as a value-based purchasing program used to improve communication and care coordination. It focuses on providing quality care that engages patients and healthcare professionals to reduce readmissions after patients discharge from healthcare facilities. This credible website explains that if a patient is readmitted within 30 days of discharge from a healthcare facility, then CMS calculates a reduction in reimbursement to the healthcare provider or facility. This reduction in reimbursement can affect a healthcare organization financial sustainability. A healthcare organization will have to make changes in the way care is provided to maximize reimbursement. Criner, R. N. #038; Han, M.K. (2018, May). COPD Care in the 21st Century: A public health priority. Respiratory Care 63(5), 591-600. http://rc.rcjournal.com/content/63/5/591 Learning outcome 1. This article provides statistical information of the prevalence of COPD in the U.S., along with the effect it has had on healthcare and the economy. Criner #038; Han (2018) outline new interventions in treating COPD patients and provides information on health and wellness promotion that follows the COPD National Action Plan. This article was published within the last three years and provides credible information that applies to several learning outcomes in relation to healthcare management of COPD. Ding, B., Small, M., Bergstrom, G., #038; Holmgren, U. (2017). COPD symptom burden: impact on health care resource utilization, and work and activity impairment. International 5 Capstone Project Assignment 2: Bibliography journal of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, 12, 677-689. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5327905/ Learning outcome 2, 3 and 4. The objective, presented by the Ding et al, (2017) study, is to analyze the burden that COPD has on healthcare utilization services and the impact of COPD has on the quality of life. The study observes the clinical practice of physicians to patients to improve standard of care and assess COPD symptom burden has on healthcare utilization. The data from this four-year-old study is reliable in assessing the factors that have an impact on healthcare delivery. It also acknowledges that COPD symptoms greatly impact the quality of life of the patient and is a burden on healthcare resource utilization. The data is well presented with effective and informative points of view, as evidenced by the guidelines presented. It offers an invaluable perspective on COPD learning outcomes. Dritsaki, M., Johnson-Warrington, V., #038; Mitchell, K. (2016). An economic evaluation of a self-management programme of activity, coping and education for patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Chronic Respiratory Disease, 13(1), 48-56. https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/pdf/10.1177/1479972315619578 Learning outcome 8. This reliable source is an economic evaluation of a selfmanagement program for patients with COPD. The research provides a study of the cost-effectiveness of the self-management program consisting of education manual (SPACE) for COPD patients. The results of the research showed that patients that 6 Capstone Project Assignment 2: Bibliography followed SPACE for COPD had improved clinical outcomes and the program is considered to be cost-effective over a six-month period. This article is five years old from publication, however it presents a study that is shows SPACE for COPD can improve outcomes and is a cost-effective strategy to manage COPD. An observation of the data applied and analyzed reveals that extensive data is evaluated and analyzed to support the ideas within the article. This study aids in continuing to provide a financial foundation in the management of COPD. Gardener, A. C., Ewing, G., Kuhn, I., #038; Farquhar, M. (2018). Support needs of patients with COPD: a systematic literature search and narrative review. International journal of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, 13, 1021-1035. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5877489/ Learning outcome 5, 6 and 7. The article published by Gardener et al (2018), provides analysis of studies performed to understand the needs of COPD patients. This publication addresses the 13 areas of support needs that were identified. These 13 areas were categorized into three to four groups that consist of physical, psychological, social, and spiritual needs. The findings identified these needs and ways to propose interventions that create patient-centered care delivery. This article deals with the perspective of patients and care givers in issues for longterm management of COPD and aids in evaluating inter-professional approaches to healthcare delivery. The article was published three years ago and is relevant to several learning outcomes. 7 Capstone Project Assignment 2: Bibliography National Institute of Health. (2021). COPD National Action Plan. https://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health-topics/education-and-awareness/COPD-nationalaction-plan Learning outcome 4 and 5. The National Institute of Health website informs the public of the COPD National Action Plan. The COPD National Action Plan was formed with five main goals to deal with issues pertaining to COPD. It recognizes the impact that COPD has on the population and healthcare services provided along with providing a plan to improve health services regarding prevention, quality of care provided, and management of COPD. While the action plan was developed in 2017, it is the first ever comprehensive framework for steps to fight against COPD. This action plan helps to describe ways to raise awareness of the disease and reduce the burden of the disease. Prevention is key. The information is presented efficiently and presents a basis for a multifaceted approach that is needed for an inter-professional approach to healthcare delivery to this patient population. Pleasants, R. A., Riley, I. L., #038; Mannino, D. M. (2016). Defining and targeting health Disparities in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. International journal of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, 11, 2475-2496. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5065167/ Learning outcome 1and 3. The article Pleasants et al, (2016), defines and targets disparities of COPD globally and how the disease is a burden through out the world. The articles provide information that populations with low SES are more likely to 8 Capstone Project Assignment 2: Bibliography develop COPD and people in impoverished nations are more exposed to environmental toxins that contribute to COPD risk factors. This article is five years old from publication, however it presents a study on the relationship of SES and COPD prevalence in different countries along with strategies that the WHO aids in providing for diagnosis and management of COPD. This source provides credible information for learning outcomes 1 and 3, that pertain to healthcare delivery outside the U.S. and how population health impacts healthcare delivery. Pillai, M., Senthilraj, O., #038; Swaminathan, S. (2019). Role of human resources management in healthcare organizations: A review. International journal of health sciences and research, 9(1), 228-235. https://www.ijhsr.org/IJHSR_Vol.9_Issue.1_Jan2019/34.pdf Learning outcome 10. This credible resource evaluates the role of Human Resource Management (HRM) in improving staff performance. The article highlights strategic plans for training and competency evaluation of employees, along with motivating employees and addressing challenges, such as staff shortage or lack of communication. The conclusion of this resource is that the role HRM is essential for managing healthcare staff. This resource is a great exle of how HRM methods are used to manage healthcare employees and improve their performance. It is necessary for HRM to act as the bridge between management and employees. Communication is essential in managing healthcare employees. Rinne, S. T., Castaneda, J., Lindenauer, P. K., Cleary, P. D., Paz, H. L., #038; Gomez, J. L. 9 Capstone Project Assignment 2: Bibliography (2017). Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease readmissions and other measures of hospital quality. American journal of respiratory and critical care medicine, 196(1), 47-55. https://eds.s.ebscohost.com/eds/detail/detail?vid=2#038;sid=7a085c09-9b85-40a7a89dd077dd2c4196%40redis#038;bdata=JkF1dGhUeXBlPXNoaWImc2l0ZT1lZHMtbGl2ZS ZzY29wZT1zaXRl#AN=000404473300012#038;db=edswsc Learning outcome 7 and 11. This credible resource from the Walden Library that discusses the association between COPD readmissions and other quality measures, along with how it affects pay-for-performance programs. With COPD being one of the most common chronic health conditions and is part of the Hospital Readmission Reduction Program (HRRP), research was performed to examine the association between COPD readmission and other quality metrics, such as patient experience, to help identify organizational factors that could affect clinical outcomes. This reliable study is relevant to learning outcomes that pertain to evidence-based factors that impact a healthcare organizations performance and quality along with financial issues such as reimbursement. This study outcome provides information that COPD readmission rates correlated with readmission rates for other conditions and these readmission rates were higher in teaching facilities. Also, that there is correlation between COPD readmission rates and lower patient satisfaction scores. Russell, S., Ogunbayo, O. J., Newham, J. J., Heslop-Marshall, K., Netts, P., Hanratty, B., Beyer, F., #038; Kaner, E. (2018). Qualitative systematic review of barriers and facilitators to self-management of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: views of 10 Capstone Project Assignment 2: Bibliography patients and healthcare professionals. NPJ primary care respiratory medicine, 28(1), 2. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5772437/ Learning outcome 6. The qualitative review done by Russell et al, (2018), provides results of the analysis of 31 studies done on self-management of COPD and how it affects the patients and practitioners providing care. The results showed that patients can adapt and self-manage the disease, however emotional and psychosocial needs require assessment and differ for everyone. The study also recognizes that practitioners need more education, training, and support to be successful at providing quality care. This article is three years old from publication and presents another critical dimension of COPD from the perspective of the patient and healthcare practitioners. The ideas handled by this article are important as they add a unique perspective to care delivery acutely and long-term. Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Capstone Mini Literature Review JENNIFER CLARK Walden University HLTH 4900 Instructor: Professor Montrece Ransom 1 Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease 2 Capstone Mini Literature Review Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) Good health is one of the essential requirements for human beings. However, diseases continue manifesting themselves and negatively affecting people. One of these diseases is chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). In terms of epidemiology, COPD is a chronic inflammatory lung disease. The disease triggers obstructed airflow from the lungs. COPD patients exhibit symptoms such as wheezing, sputum, cough, and breathing difficulty. The main causes of COPD include smoking, long-term exposure to polluted environments, and alpha-1 deficiency. In terms of statistical data, the Center for Disease Control and Prevention eludes that the disease affects over 15 million Americans. Additionally, over 150,000 Americans die of COPD annually. For that reason, many experts, researchers, clinicians, and medical professionals have conducted intensive research about chronic obstructive pulmonary disease to aid in prevention and treatment. Therefore, the primary objective of this paper is to perform a systematic mini literature review on the diseases based on various resources. Capstone Mini Literature Review According to the study conducted by the American Lung Association (2021a), COPD is caused by long-term exposure to irritants that cause complications in the airways and lungs. The disease is also caused by smoking tobacco that contributes to about 90% of the cases. For exle, cigarette smoking releases over 7000 toxic chemicals that negatively affect the lungs, air sacs, and air tubes, thus causing COPD. The study also reveals that non-smokers exposed to pollutants can suffer from COPD. Hereditary through genetic is also a primary cause of COPD, especially in people with alpha-1 deficiency. American Lung Association (2021a) also presents Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease 3 risk factors for COPD, including asthmatic individuals, exposure to tobacco smoke, exposure to chemicals and dust, exposure to fumes from coal and charcoal, and genetics. Overall, the study advises smokers to quit smoking as a preventative measure for COPD. The study by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2011) focuses on the public health strategic framework for preventing COPD. For exle, all the stakeholders provide their insights on preventing the disease from saving millions of Americans diagnosed with COPD. The study also reveals that men are more exposed to this disease than women, such that the mortality rate for men remains higher than for women with COPD. Patients with COPD exhibit symptoms such as coughing, shortness of breath, and wheezing. In terms of prevention, stakeholders advise people to quit smoking because at least 75% of COPD is caused by cigarette smoking. Overall, the student presents a treatment plan for COPD that includes encouraging people to be physically active and feed on a healthy diet. Smoking cessation and preventing exposure to chemicals, toxins, and pollutants can assist in self-management to meet public health goals. The research done by Criner #038; Han (2018) indicates that COPD is a chronic disease that remains underdiagnozed and undertreated regardless of being among the most preventable diseases. In the United States, millions of people have suffered from COPD, and the mortality rate remains high. The country has used billions of dollars to fight COPD, but patients continue facing health complications associated with the disease. The findings indicate that many cases of COPD are associated with smoking. Criner #038; Han (2018) also elude that the disease continues overburdening women and vulnerable groups in low socioeconomic status. Overall, the research indicates that COPD can be prevented or combated through telemedicine, tele-rehabilitation, and hospital-at-home programs. The use of the COPD National Action Plan is also fundamental in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease 4 engaging key stakeholders to prevent, diagnose, treat, and promote health awareness to those at risk. In another study conducted by Ding et al. (2017), COPD is considered a chronic disease that negatively and adversely affects patients. Although there is limited data on employment and the effect of symptomatic burden of the disease, the quality of life for many patients continues diminishing. Ding et al. (2017) assessed over 2,100 COPD patients in China, the United States, and Europe to determine how the disease affects their lives by collecting data based on WPAI and CAT. The findings indicate that most COPD patients exhibited high symptom levels even after undergoing COPD treatment. The study also revealed that patients exhibited increasing symptoms due to an increase in HCRU, thus affecting the productivity of patients at workplaces. Dritsaki et al. (2016) perform a cost-utility analysis to determine how coping, education and self-management programs associate with COPD. The study also involved the analysis of 30 primary care settings through a randomized controlled trial. Therefore, the economic evaluation on SPACE for COPD depicts its cost-effectiveness that brings clinical improvements. Overall, the authors also elude that patients adhere to recommended community physiotherapist visits, respiratory clinic visits, and emergency department visits after implementing self-management programs. Gardener et al. (2017) argue that battling COPD can be overwhelming for most patients. Therefore, it is fundamental to understand the burden associated with managing COPD to offer the most suitable support needed by patients to manage their lives with COPD. The study eluded that embracing patient-centred care and utilizing evidence-based tools can play critical roles in determining support needs for COPD patients. Gardener et al. (2017) relied on systematic searches to determine the various support needed, such as understanding the disease, medication Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease 5 and symptom management, modifying lifestyles, and controlling feelings and worries. The support needs also included providing physical and financial support, building strong family relationships, fighting depression and anxiety, and encouraging COPD patients to embrace social and recreational life. All the mentioned domains indicate that patients can manage their lives and achieve patient-centred care that relies on the Support Needs Approach for Patients. Pleasants et al. (2016) focus on the healthcare disparities affecting COPD patients. Although some countries have made remarkable milestones in fighting COPD, some areas continue facing a disproportionate burden of COPD due to disparities that affect smokers, those working in polluted environments, and people of low socioeconomic status. In other words, polluted occupation, massive use of tobacco, intrauterine and childhood exposures, and household and indoor pollution remain the primary risk factors for COPD for those in low socioeconomic status as eluded by Pleasants et al. (2016). Lastly, Rinne et al. (2017) conducted a study to determine hospital readmissions associated with COPD. The study indicates that the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services have implemented various plans to reduce hospital readmissions for COPD. For that reason, Rinne et al. (2017) examine the correlation between COPD readmissions and other quality measures based on the findings from 3,075 hospitals. The study compared readmission to other measures and realized a modest correlation with other diseases such as stroke, pneumonia, acute myocardial infection, and heart failure. Conclusion To sum, COPD continues threatening the lives of many people worldwide. Various studies have been conducted to better understand how to diagnose, prevent, and treat the disease. Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease 6 Therefore, it is paramount to implement insights from these resources to reduce COPD prevalence and reduce mortality associated with it. Most importantly, some of the prevention measures will also significantly help people prevent other diseases such as cancer that are highly attributed to smoking and exposure to toxins, chemicals, and other pollutants. Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease 7 References American Lung Association. (2021a). COPD causes and risk factors. https://www.lung.org/lunghealth-diseases/lung-disease-lookup/copd/what-causes-copd Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2011). Public health strategic framework for COPD prevention. https://www.cdc.gov/copd/pdfs/framework_for_copd_prevention.pdf Criner, R. N. #038; Han, M.K. (2018, May). COPD Care in the 21st Century: A public health priority. Respiratory Care 63(5), 591-600. http://rc.rcjournal.com/content/63/5/591 Ding, B., Small, M., Bergstrom, G., #038; Holmgren, U. (2017). COPD symptom burden: impact on health care resource utilization, and work and activity impairment. International journal of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, 12, 677-689. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5327905/ Dritsaki, M., Johnson-Warrington, V., #038; Mitchell, K. (2016). An economic evaluation of a selfmanagement programme of activity, coping and education for patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Chronic Respiratory Disease, 13(1), 48-56. https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/pdf/10.1177/1479972315619578 Gardener, A. C., Ewing, G., Kuhn, I., #038; Farquhar, M. (2018). Support needs of patients with COPD: a systematic literature search and narrative review. International journal of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, 13, 1021-1035. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5877489/ Pleasants, R. A., Riley, I. L., #038; Mannino, D. M. (2016). Defining and targeting health Disparities in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. International journal of chronic obstructive Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease 8 pulmonary disease, 11, 2475-2496. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5065167/ Rinne, S. T., Castaneda, J., Lindenauer, P. K., Cleary, P. D., Paz, H. L., #038; Gomez, J. L. (2017). Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease readmissions and other measures of hospital quality. American journal of respiratory and critical care medicine, 196(1), 47-55. https://eds.s.ebscohost.com/eds/detail/detail?vid=2#038;sid=7a085c09-9b85-40a7-a89dd077dd2c4196%40redis#038;bdata=JkF1dGhUeXBlPXNoaWImc2l0ZT1lZHMtbGl2ZSZzY 29wZT1zaXRl#AN=000404473300012#038;db=edswsc COPD: Causes, Issues, Treatment, and Prevention Capstone Mini Literature Review COPD: Causes, Issues, Treatment, and Prevention JENNIFER CLARK Walden University HLTH 4900 Instructor: Professor Montrece Ransom 1 COPD: Causes, Issues, Treatment, and Prevention 2 COPD: Causes, Issues, Treatment, and Prevention Good health is one of the essential requirements for human beings. However, diseases continue manifesting themselves and negatively affecting people. One of these diseases is chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease is a trending lung condition that is associated with smoking. This disease has had an impact on the allocation of health care resources worldwide. To diagnose the disease, a series of lung volume and flow tests are performed, along with history and physical. The symptoms and impairments to the patient determine the extent of medical treatments required. The most common types of treatments include smoking cessation, immunizations for flu and pneumonia, pharmacological treatments that include respiratory nebulizer or inhaler therapy, and supplemental oxygen to help reduce symptoms of exacerbations. Self-management programs and pulmonary rehabilitation has shown to improve outcomes, improve lung function, and increase quality of life. COPD Statistics and Epidemiological Data In terms of epidemiology, COPD is a chronic inflammatory lung disease. The disease triggers obstructed airflow from the lungs. COPD patients exhibit symptoms such as wheezing, sputum, cough, and breathing difficulty. The main causes of COPD include smoking, long-term exposure to polluted environments, and alpha-1 deficiency. In terms of statistical data, the Center for Disease Control and Prevention eludes that the disease affects over 15 million Americans. Additionally, over 150,000 Americans die of COPD annually making it the fourth leading cause of death. For that reason, many experts, researchers, clinicians, and medical professionals have conducted intensive research about chronic obstructive pulmonary disease to aid in prevention and treatment. COPD: Causes, Issues, Treatment, and Prevention 3 Quality of Healthcare delivery and research within and outside the U.S. According to the study conducted by the American Lung Association (2021a), COPD is caused by long-term exposure to irritants that cause complications in the airways and lungs. The disease is also caused by smoking tobacco that contributes to about 90% of the cases. For exle, cigarette smoking releases over 7000 toxic chemicals that negatively affect the lungs, air sacs, and air tubes, thus causing COPD. The study also reveals that non-smokers exposed to pollutants can suffer from COPD. Hereditary through genetic is also a primary cause of COPD, especially in people with alpha-1 deficiency. American Lung Association (2021a) also presents risk factors for COPD, including asthmatic individuals, exposure to tobacco smoke, exposure to chemicals and dust, exposure to fumes from coal and charcoal, and genetics. Overall, the study advises smokers to quit smoking as a preventative measure for COPD. Factors Impacting Quality Healthcare Delivery related to COPD The research done by Criner #038; Han (2018) indicates that COPD is a chronic disease that remains underdiagnozed and undertreated regardless of being among the most preventable diseases. In the United States, millions of people have suffered from COPD, and the mortality rate remains high. The country has used billions of dollars to fight COPD, but patients continue facing health complications associated with the disease. The findings indicate that many cases of COPD are associated with smoking. Criner #038; Han (2018) also elude that the disease continues overburdening women and vulnerable groups in low socioeconomic status. Behavior theories have been used in counseling patients to change their lifestyle habits. Overall, the research indicates that COPD can be prevented or combated through telemedicine, tele-rehabilitation, and hospital-at-home programs. The use of the COPD National Action Plan is also fundamental in COPD: Causes, Issues, Treatment, and Prevention 4 engaging key stakeholders to prevent, diagnose, treat, and promote health awareness to those at risk. Economic Evaluation and Financial Management of COPD Dritsaki et al. (2016) perform a cost-utility analysis to determine how coping, education and self-management programs associate with COPD. The study also involved the analysis of 30 primary care settings through a randomized controlled trial. Therefore, the economic evaluation on SPACE for COPD depicts its cost-effectiveness that brings clinical improvements. Overall, the authors also elude those patients adhere to recommended community physiotherapist visits, respiratory clinic visits, and emergency department visits after implementing self-management programs. Health and Wellness Promotion and Prevention Strategies The study by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2011) focuses on the public health strategic framework for preventing COPD. For exle, all the stakeholders provide their insights on preventing the disease from saving millions of Americans diagnosed with COPD. The study also reveals that men are more exposed to this disease than women, such that the mortality rate for men remains higher than for women with COPD. Patients with COPD exhibit symptoms such as coughing, shortness of breath, and wheezing. In terms of prevention, stakeholders advise people to quit smoking because at least 75% of COPD is caused by cigarette smoking. Overall, the student presents a treatment plan for COPD that includes encouraging people to be physically active and feed on a healthy diet. Smoking cessation and preventing exposure to chemicals, toxins, and pollutants can assist in self-management to meet public health goals. COPD: Causes, Issues, Treatment, and Prevention 5 Importance of Team approach for Patient-Centered Care Gardener et al. (2017) argue that battling COPD can be overwhelming for most patients. Therefore, it is fundamental to understand the burden associated with managing COPD to offer the most suitable support needed by patients to manage their lives with COPD. The study eluded that embracing patient-centred care and utilizing evidence-based tools can play critical roles in determining support needs for COPD patients. Gardener et al. (2017) relied on systematic searches to determine the various support needed, such as understanding the disease, medication, and symptom management, modifying lifestyles, and controlling feelings and worries. The support needs also included providing physical and financial support, building strong family relationships, fighting depression and anxiety, and encouraging COPD patients to embrace social and recreational life. All the mentioned domains indicate that patients can manage their lives and achieve patient-centred care that relies on the Support Needs Approach for Patients. COPD Across Class, Race, Ethnicity, and Culture Pleasants et al. (2016) focus’ on the healthcare disparities affecting COPD patients. Although some countries have made remarkable milestones in fighting COPD, some areas continue facing a disproportionate burden of COPD due to disparities that affect smokers, those working in polluted environments, and people of low socioeconomic status. In other words, polluted occupation, massive use of tobacco, intrauterine and childhood exposures, and household and indoor pollution remain the primary risk factors for COPD for those in low socioeconomic status as eluded by Pleasants et al. (2016). Also, according to data from the National Institute of Health (2021), COPD cases in relation to ethnicity, show that 11 percent of American Indians have COPD, ten percent of multiracial people have COPD, non-Hispanic blacks make up 6 percent of the COPD population, along with sixteen percent of whites and COPD: Causes, Issues, Treatment, and Prevention 6 three percent of Hispanics. Culture is a major determining factor of patients actually diagnosed with COPD. For instance, whites are more likely to have regular check-ups which is why the percentage of whites diagnosed with COPD is higher, whereas Hispanics are less likely to seek regular medical care due to lack of trust in healthcare professionals or affordability of health insurance. Even though the COPD National Action Plan tries to bridge this gap in the affordability of services, it is still a major issue and influences the treatment and management of COPD. Health care services for COPD are better in more developed countries globally, however in developing countries healthcare services for COPD is inadequate. Evidence-Based Factors of Performance and Reimbursement Lastly, Rinne et al. (2017) conducted a study to determine hospital readmissions associated with COPD. The study indicates that the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services have implemented various plans to reduce hospital readmissions for COPD. For that reason, Rinne et al. (2017) examine the correlation between COPD readmissions and other quality measures based on the findings from 3,075 hospitals. The study compared readmission to other measures and realized a modest correlation with other diseases such as stroke, pneumonia, acute myocardial infection, and heart failure. To have effective COPD programs, it is necessary to improve the level of management. According to the National Institute of Health (2021), training all medical professionals and practitioners on COPD and best management techniques is essential. Improving healthcare management programs for COPD would assist in getting appropriate tools and equipment needed in providing quality medical treatment for COPD patients, create awareness in public of the disease, and aid in early diagnosis and management of the disease. This type of COPD program would be evaluated by the healthcare management team by assessing the effectiveness of the services provided in the patient outcomes. COPD: Causes, Issues, Treatment, and Prevention 7 Advance Social Changes in Health Education and Promotion related to COPD Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease continues threatening the lives of many people worldwide. Effective communication is essential in healthcare for providing the right information to the patient and to effectively manage treatment with evidence-based knowledge. A strong practitioner-patient relationship is critical in management of the disease. Various studies have been conducted to better understand how to diagnose, prevent, and treat the disease. Therefore, it is paramount to implement insights from these resources to reduce COPD prevalence and reduce mortality associated with it. Most importantly, some of the prevention measures will also significantly help people prevent other diseases such as cancer that are highly attributed to smoking and exposure to toxins, chemicals, and other pollutants. COPD: Causes, Issues, Treatment, and Prevention 8 References American Lung Association. (2021a). COPD causes and risk factors. https://www.lung.org/lunghealth-diseases/lung-disease-lookup/copd/what-causes-copd Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2011). Public health strategic framework for COPD prevention. https://www.cdc.gov/copd/pdfs/framework_for_copd_prevention.pdf Criner, R. N. #038; Han, M.K. (2018, May). COPD Care in the 21st Century: A public health priority. Respiratory Care 63(5), 591-600. http://rc.rcjournal.com/content/63/5/591 Ding, B., Small, M., Bergstrom, G., #038; Holmgren, U. (2017). COPD symptom burden: impact on health care resource utilization, and work and activity impairment. International journal of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, 12, 677-689. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5327905/ Dritsaki, M., Johnson-Warrington, V., #038; Mitchell, K. (2016). An economic evaluation of a selfmanagement programme of activity, coping and education for patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Chronic Respiratory Disease, 13(1), 48-56. https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/pdf/10.1177/1479972315619578 Gardener, A. C., Ewing, G., Kuhn, I., #038; Farquhar, M. (2018). Support needs of patients with COPD: a systematic literature search and narrative review. International journal of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, 13, 1021-1035. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5877489/ National Institute of Health. (2021). COPD National Action Plan. https://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health-topics/education-and-awareness/COPD-national-action-plan COPD: Causes, Issues, Treatment, and Prevention 9 Pleasants, R. A., Riley, I. L., #038; Mannino, D. M. (2016). Defining and targeting health Disparities in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. International journal of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, 11, 2475-2496. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5065167/ Rinne, S. T., Castaneda, J., Lindenauer, P. K., Cleary, P. D., Paz, H. L., #038; Gomez, J. L. (2017). Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease readmissions and other measures of hospital quality. American journal of respiratory and critical care medicine, 196(1), 47-55. https://eds.s.ebscohost.com/eds/detail/detail?vid=2#038;sid=7a085c09-9b85-40a7-a89dd077dd2c4196%40redis#038;bdata=JkF1dGhUeXBlPXNoaWImc2l0ZT1lZHMtbGl2ZSZzY 29wZT1zaXRl#AN=000404473300012#038;db=edswsc

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