– CNUR860majorstatsDYSPNEA_WINTER_2022.pdf

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Ryerson University

Daphne Cockwell School of Nursing

CNUR 860 WINTER 2022 Major Statistics Week 10

Course Leader Dr Elaine Santa Mina

This assignment is worth 30 marks


There is no page limit to your paper.

This assignment accompanies the RNAO Best Practice Guideline: Registered Nurses’ Association of Ontario (2005). Nursing Care of Dyspnea: The 6th

Vital Sign in Individuals with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD). Toronto,

Canada: Registered Nurses’ Association of Ontario.

Prepare your assignment as per APA 5th format, inclusive of a title page, pages

numbered, double spaced , reference page etc. DO NOT RECOPY Question format and

DO NOT INSERT ANSWERS IN POINT FORM; Reference your Salkind text


Grading: Assignments completed in point form will NOT be accepted for grading.

This is an individual assignment, not a group assignment, see course syllabus

directions to not share files, papers, or any part of your assignment with another

student, as that constitutes academic misconduct.

Answer each research question separately…do not combine answers across questions.

There will be a 5 mark deduction, if APA format for a scholarly paper is not followed,

and/ or if responses to questions are combined.

Please remember: If you decide a pearson r is required in the hypothesis test, on

your output the correct significance in the correlation to interpret is the significance for

the p value beside the independent variable. The written excel directions are correct.

There is an error in the captivate lab which incorrectly indicates that you are to use the p

value for the intercept

Use the CNUR 860 Major STATS assignment database and study abstract for this

assignment. For the following three research scenarios, answer the research questions by

conducting the requested analyses. Each question is worth a total of 10 marks for a total

of 30 marks for this assignment. The distribution of marks is similar to the distribution

on your mini stats assignments.


a) descriptive stats = 4 marks (2 marks per variable) Conduct the appropriate

descriptive statistical analyses to answer this research question. Include in the descriptive

analyses, all outputs, (include graphs: histograms/bar graphs, for the descriptives, if you think they are

helpful in the presentation of your answer) with legends as required and discuss findings of


b) inferential = 4 marks, Include each step of the hypothesis test.


Correct null and research hypotheses = .25

No grade is given for identification of target population, sle population or IV and DV

and level of measure, (grades for IV and DV are included in descriptives), but if omitted,

there will be a deduction of .1 for each omission

No grade is given for level of significance set for the test, but if omitted, there will be a

deduction of .1

The selection of the correct statistical test is weighted more heavily (2.0 marks). If you

choose the incorrect test you will lose marks for this however, you will be credited marks

for correct decisions made for an incorrect test. e.g If you do the wrong test, a deduction of -2.0

applies; however, you are credited for correct hypothesis testing decisions based upon results you provided.

Remainder of steps are .25 each, except steps 6 #038; 7 together = .25

c) critical interpretation of the findings and limitations and discussion of

implications for practice and research = 2 marks (1.5 for critical interpretation of your

findings, .5 for practice implications and for research implications (the critical

interpretation and implications are to include a discussion of any of the demographic data

that you have analyzed in previous assignments: e.g. age, gender, etc as the data may be

relevant to your interpretation of findings)


Research Scenario 1. (10 marks)

Researchers wanted to know if patients’ level of depression, anxiety and stress affect

their perception of physical limitation. Researchers measured patients’ perception of

physical limitation using a self-report visual analogue scale (0 = perceived no physical

limitation to 100 perceived to be completely physically disabled). Patients also completed

the Depression Anxiety and Stress Scale – 21 (DASS 21) (Lovibond #038; Lovibond, 1995),

which is reported to have strong reliability and validity in Western populations (Oei,

Sawang, Goh, #038; Mukhtar, 2013). This is a 21 item 4 point semantic differential likert

instrument that measures depression, anxiety, and stress. Participants select 0, 1, 2, 3 for

each item (0 = did not apply, to 4 applied to me most of the time, equal increments of 1

with no descriptors with each increment). Scores were added to create total scores from 0

to 63.

Research Question 1

In patients with COPD, is self-perception of physical limitation related to their level of

depression, anxiety and stress?

Research Scenario 2. (10 marks)

The literature review conducted by RNAO in this best practice guideline demonstrated

that there was little empirical evidence to support the effectiveness of energy conserving

strategies, despite clinician expert recommendations. Therefore, the researchers designed

a study to compare patient perception of energy after using one of three energy

conserving activities as recommended in this BPG. Patients with COPD chose one

strategy: activity pacing, use of a wheeled walker, or positive thinking and visualization.

Each patient received individual counseling for one week and was given strategy specific

aides (e.g. activity pacing manual, a wheeled walker, positive thinking exercises). Each

participant practiced the energy conserving activity for 30 days and then completed a

self-report, visual analogue scale to measure self-perception of energy level (0 = no

energy to 100 full ‘normal’ energy).

Research question 2:

Do patients with COPD perceive higher levels of energy with activity pacing, the use of a

wheeled walker, or positive thinking and visualization energy conserving strategy?


Research Scenario 3. (10 marks)

It is important for nurses to teach patients with COPD about their medications. As

anticholinergics are commonly ordered for patients with COPD, nurses wanted to know if

their teaching was effective in increasing patients’ knowledge about this class of

medications. The researchers administered a quiz about anticholinergic medications,

their use and side effects to patients prior to an in-service on anticholinergics. (The quiz

consisted of multiple choice questions, out of 25, each question was worth one mark).

The patients in the study attended a one-hour in-service at a time convenient to them. The

in-service was provided by different RNs in the department. Immediately after the in-

service, the patients completed the same quiz, the second time.

Research Question 3:

Is a one-hour in-service effective to increase the knowledge of anticholinergic

medications for patients with COPD?



Lovibond, P. F., #038; Lovibond, S. H. (1995). The structure of negative emotional states:

Comparison of the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales (DASS) with the Beck Depression

and Anxiety Inventories. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 33, 335–343.

Oei, T., Sawang, S., Goh, Y., #038; Mukhtar, F. (2013). Using the Depression Anxiety stress

scale 21 across cultures. International Journal of Psychology,48(6) 1018-1029.

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